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Google Glasses Project

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Sergey Brin wearing Google Glasses

Sergy Brin spotted on New York subway wearing 'Google goggles'

Clad in a stylish, black zip-up top and coolly holding the gaze, he could be an upmarket hitman researching his next job. One columnist likened him to “an assassin.”

But that was just mischief, since the New York Times knew the bearded, beanie-wearing man on the New York subway was Google’s Sergey Brin, who, given the company’s storage of billions of internet searches, could already know everything about his fellow passengers.

Look more closely though, and you will see Brin may be learning even more. His glasses are no ordinary over-sized ski goggles but a prototype of the latest gadget that could allow mobile data-downloading with voice commands: Google Glasses.

Not to be confused with Google Goggles, an app for its Android operating system, Google Glasses have been developed in secret by technologists at the Californian search giant.

Capable of giving an “augmented reality” to viewers – or telling them lots of stuff about who and what they are seeing, they could transform our computer habits beyond even the astonishing advances of recent years.

Thy first received an outing last year when 39-year-old Brin, who is in charge of developing Google X projects – wore them at an event for the blind in San Francisco, in April.

A few more glimpses of them were seen last summer, setting tongues wagging in tech circles, where there was intense excitement about their potential for increasing interaction with the web on the go.

According to technologists, Google Glasses could allow humans to interact with their surroundings in a much more dynamic and instantaneous way.

A small screen sits on the right-size of the right lens, along with a camera, microphone and speakers, meaning, potentially, that the user could point the camera at, say, subway passengers and use facial recognition software to inform them of their name, occupation and everything else, such as the time they wore an embarrassing outfit on a train.

Like the company’s Android software, the technology is expected to be made available to developers – possibly later this year. Whether they will be any use on the London Underground is in question though – most stations and trains still cannot receive a signal, no matter how fancy the device.

Brin, a Moscow-born computer scientist, co-founded Google with Larry Page in 1998. He is now estimated to have a personal fortune of more than $20bn.

Sergy Brin spotted on New York subway wearing 'Google goggles'

Clad in a stylish, black zip-up top and coolly holding the gaze, he could be an upmarket hitman researching his next job. One columnist likened him to “an assassin.”

But that was just mischief, since the New York Times knew the bearded, beanie-wearing man on the New York subway was Google’s Sergey Brin, who, given the company’s storage of billions of internet searches, could already know everything about his fellow passengers.

Look more closely though, and you will see Brin may be learning even more. His glasses are no ordinary over-sized ski goggles but a prototype of the latest gadget that could allow mobile data-downloading with voice commands: Google Glasses.

Not to be confused with Google Goggles, an app for its Android operating system, Google Glasses have been developed in secret by technologists at the Californian search giant.

Capable of giving an “augmented reality” to viewers – or telling them lots of stuff about who and what they are seeing, they could transform our computer habits beyond even the astonishing advances of recent years.

Thy first received an outing last year when 39-year-old Brin, who is in charge of developing Google X projects – wore them at an event for the blind in San Francisco, in April.

A few more glimpses of them were seen last summer, setting tongues wagging in tech circles, where there was intense excitement about their potential for increasing interaction with the web on the go.

According to technologists, Google Glasses could allow humans to interact with their surroundings in a much more dynamic and instantaneous way.

A small screen sits on the right-size of the right lens, along with a camera, microphone and speakers, meaning, potentially, that the user could point the camera at, say, subway passengers and use facial recognition software to inform them of their name, occupation and everything else, such as the time they wore an embarrassing outfit on a train.

Like the company’s Android software, the technology is expected to be made available to developers – possibly later this year. Whether they will be any use on the London Underground is in question though – most stations and trains still cannot receive a signal, no matter how fancy the device.

Brin, a Moscow-born computer scientist, co-founded Google with Larry Page in 1998. He is now estimated to have a personal fortune of more than $20bn.

Google Glasses Project

Google Glasses Project

Could change advertising

Sergey-brin-google-glasses

It's 2015 and you've just arrived back in New York City from a weekend trip. You're standing in Times Square when it occurs to you that you're hungry. So, literally in the blink of an eye, you call up information about all the nearby restaurants. You realize, however, that you could also use some companionship so you say "friends nearby restaurants." Just then you see that a pal of yours has checked in to Fannelli Cafe in SoHo. You quickly text him and arrange to meet. When you call up directions, you get an offer for $2 off your first Guinness. All thanks to Google Glass.

No, that's not an officially sanctioned use for Google's ambitious pair of Internet-connected spectacles. In fact, Google has stressed repeatedly that there will be no ads on Google Glass. "There are no plans for advertising on this device," says a Google rep. "We’re more interested in making the hardware available."

But ad execs can dream. Those who make their living via augmented reality have even more vivid dreams. For them, Google Glass isn't some weird 20% project, it's the future of advertising. "Stop thinking of [augmented reality] as a business. It's a browser," says John Havens, founder of the H(app)athon Project. "If this was 1992 and I told you there was something called a web browser that was going to change advertising, would you believe me? Yet that's what happened."

That may not be just wishful thinking. If Google Glass and its imitators take off, it could literally change the way we see the world and the way we interact with brands. Just as the Internet completely overhauled marketing over the past 20 years or so, so can the "Outernet." In the process we'll move a step away from the arms-length relationship we consumers have had with brands and a step closer to a consumer-brand mind meld.

Is this possible? Those who are bullish on Google Glass point to the revved up adoption rates of new technologies. As Flurry Analytics reported last August, smartphones have taken off 10 times faster than the 80s PC revolution, two times faster than the 90s Internet boom and three times faster than the social networking revolution. "If we go back look at how fast things are adopting lately compared to 10 to 15 years ago, we're looking at [mass adoption in] 2015 or 2016," says Andrew Couch, CEO of Candy Lab, an AR provider.

Before we explore the fever dreams of AR ad execs though, a few caveats: One is that the idea of everyone in the late 2010s walking around with Sergey Brin's favorite piece of eyewear seems a little unrealistic. Who, beyond hardcore techies, would want to sport such a look? And even if Google Glass inevitably becomes indistinguishable from regular glasses, who would want to go through life surveying the world like the Terminator? Another is that Google hasn't given out much information about Google Glass. The company plans to launch an API for the device at some point and Google is looking to include phone functions, email and calendar features, but that's about it.

For argument's sake, however, let's assume that Google Glass does take off and that it has everything advertisers are looking for. Now that the Outernet has really become a thing, how will we be carrying out our lives? How will brands inevitably colonize this new frontier? Here are a few potential scenarios:

Coupon Offers

But Couch says Google can get around such privacy concerns if people opt in like they do with Foursquare check-ins. And one motivation to opt in would be discounts. Imagine, for instance, if you get a third meal free if you bring two friends. As the Guinness example shows, such offers can be triggered by a search for directions. The result would be something of an ideal scenario for advertisers — getting in front of a consumer just as they're ready to buy your product or a rival product.

Personalized Ads

In their current incarnation, billboards are a blunt instrument. An ad for a female-skewing product like makeup will alienate about 50% of the population. An ad in a high-traffic area like an airport is likely to be aimed at a broad group of people who fit under the heading of "business traveler" even though you don't fit that description.

But what if the ads you saw were different than the person next to you? What if, like the ads you see online, they are based on a composite sketch of you created by all the searches you've done and the websites you've visited? In other words, what if you looked up and instead of seeing an ad for something you would never buy — like women's shoes — you saw an ad reminding you of that Amazon search you did a few days ago?

Dave Elchoness, co-founder and CEO of Tagwhat, takes the idea further: "You can even monetize vertical," he says. "You'd see something different if you look up at a 45-degree angle than you would if you look straight up." (As Havens has previously pointed out, there's currently no restriction on such "virtual air rights;" two or more brands can occupy the same space, though what you'll see depends on who you are and what technology you're using.)

Elchoness acknowledges that these kind of literally in-your-face ads may not appeal to everyone. "With the current approach, you can sort of ignore a banner ad," he says. Another obstacle is that behavioral data. Apple's iOS doesn't allow for tracking of third-party cookies, meaning that an advertiser can't follow your path on the web. Google allows for third-party tracking, but the technology is new and advertisers are still just figuring it out. Still, consumers might decide that they don't mind being tracked if they're served up more relevant ads. On the other hand, they might find the whole thing creepy.

Where does this leave traditional billboards? Likely they'd remain as they are for some time, just as newspapers coexist with the web. However, over time, they'd become less relevant and effective. After all, you don't need a physical billboard to project the AR ads that Elchoness refers to.

Game-ification of Everyday Life

It's one thing to play Mario Bros., but what about living it? "What if you were Mario?" asks Couch. In this scenario, you might be walking down the street when you get an invitation to open a box or grab a medallion. Doing either allows you to earn points in a game to, say, get a free coffee at the Seattle's Best coffee shop, which happens to be just a few feet away.

As far-fetched as this may seem, Cachetown, a unit of Candy Lab, is already offering such games. However, with those you have to use your smartphone or tablet. The video below outlines how such programs work. Though it takes creative license at one point and lets the girl see the objects without a phone, tablet or Google Glass, Couch says that with Google Glass it would be pretty much the same. "Take the tablet out of that girl's hand and have [Google Glass] on her face. How much more fun would that be?"

Sergey-brin-google-glasses

It's 2015 and you've just arrived back in New York City from a weekend trip. You're standing in Times Square when it occurs to you that you're hungry. So, literally in the blink of an eye, you call up information about all the nearby restaurants. You realize, however, that you could also use some companionship so you say "friends nearby restaurants." Just then you see that a pal of yours has checked in to Fannelli Cafe in SoHo. You quickly text him and arrange to meet. When you call up directions, you get an offer for $2 off your first Guinness. All thanks to Google Glass.

No, that's not an officially sanctioned use for Google's ambitious pair of Internet-connected spectacles. In fact, Google has stressed repeatedly that there will be no ads on Google Glass. "There are no plans for advertising on this device," says a Google rep. "We’re more interested in making the hardware available."

But ad execs can dream. Those who make their living via augmented reality have even more vivid dreams. For them, Google Glass isn't some weird 20% project, it's the future of advertising. "Stop thinking of [augmented reality] as a business. It's a browser," says John Havens, founder of the H(app)athon Project. "If this was 1992 and I told you there was something called a web browser that was going to change advertising, would you believe me? Yet that's what happened."

That may not be just wishful thinking. If Google Glass and its imitators take off, it could literally change the way we see the world and the way we interact with brands. Just as the Internet completely overhauled marketing over the past 20 years or so, so can the "Outernet." In the process we'll move a step away from the arms-length relationship we consumers have had with brands and a step closer to a consumer-brand mind meld.

Is this possible? Those who are bullish on Google Glass point to the revved up adoption rates of new technologies. As Flurry Analytics reported last August, smartphones have taken off 10 times faster than the 80s PC revolution, two times faster than the 90s Internet boom and three times faster than the social networking revolution. "If we go back look at how fast things are adopting lately compared to 10 to 15 years ago, we're looking at [mass adoption in] 2015 or 2016," says Andrew Couch, CEO of Candy Lab, an AR provider.

Before we explore the fever dreams of AR ad execs though, a few caveats: One is that the idea of everyone in the late 2010s walking around with Sergey Brin's favorite piece of eyewear seems a little unrealistic. Who, beyond hardcore techies, would want to sport such a look? And even if Google Glass inevitably becomes indistinguishable from regular glasses, who would want to go through life surveying the world like the Terminator? Another is that Google hasn't given out much information about Google Glass. The company plans to launch an API for the device at some point and Google is looking to include phone functions, email and calendar features, but that's about it.

For argument's sake, however, let's assume that Google Glass does take off and that it has everything advertisers are looking for. Now that the Outernet has really become a thing, how will we be carrying out our lives? How will brands inevitably colonize this new frontier? Here are a few potential scenarios:

Coupon Offers

But Couch says Google can get around such privacy concerns if people opt in like they do with Foursquare check-ins. And one motivation to opt in would be discounts. Imagine, for instance, if you get a third meal free if you bring two friends. As the Guinness example shows, such offers can be triggered by a search for directions. The result would be something of an ideal scenario for advertisers — getting in front of a consumer just as they're ready to buy your product or a rival product.

Personalized Ads

In their current incarnation, billboards are a blunt instrument. An ad for a female-skewing product like makeup will alienate about 50% of the population. An ad in a high-traffic area like an airport is likely to be aimed at a broad group of people who fit under the heading of "business traveler" even though you don't fit that description.

But what if the ads you saw were different than the person next to you? What if, like the ads you see online, they are based on a composite sketch of you created by all the searches you've done and the websites you've visited? In other words, what if you looked up and instead of seeing an ad for something you would never buy — like women's shoes — you saw an ad reminding you of that Amazon search you did a few days ago?

Dave Elchoness, co-founder and CEO of Tagwhat, takes the idea further: "You can even monetize vertical," he says. "You'd see something different if you look up at a 45-degree angle than you would if you look straight up." (As Havens has previously pointed out, there's currently no restriction on such "virtual air rights;" two or more brands can occupy the same space, though what you'll see depends on who you are and what technology you're using.)

Elchoness acknowledges that these kind of literally in-your-face ads may not appeal to everyone. "With the current approach, you can sort of ignore a banner ad," he says. Another obstacle is that behavioral data. Apple's iOS doesn't allow for tracking of third-party cookies, meaning that an advertiser can't follow your path on the web. Google allows for third-party tracking, but the technology is new and advertisers are still just figuring it out. Still, consumers might decide that they don't mind being tracked if they're served up more relevant ads. On the other hand, they might find the whole thing creepy.

Where does this leave traditional billboards? Likely they'd remain as they are for some time, just as newspapers coexist with the web. However, over time, they'd become less relevant and effective. After all, you don't need a physical billboard to project the AR ads that Elchoness refers to.

Game-ification of Everyday Life

It's one thing to play Mario Bros., but what about living it? "What if you were Mario?" asks Couch. In this scenario, you might be walking down the street when you get an invitation to open a box or grab a medallion. Doing either allows you to earn points in a game to, say, get a free coffee at the Seattle's Best coffee shop, which happens to be just a few feet away.

As far-fetched as this may seem, Cachetown, a unit of Candy Lab, is already offering such games. However, with those you have to use your smartphone or tablet. The video below outlines how such programs work. Though it takes creative license at one point and lets the girl see the objects without a phone, tablet or Google Glass, Couch says that with Google Glass it would be pretty much the same. "Take the tablet out of that girl's hand and have [Google Glass] on her face. How much more fun would that be?"

Demonstration

Demonstration

Sergey Brin interview

Sergey Brin interview

Best Inventions of the Year 2012

Livefyre
Dan Forbes for TIME

Glass is, simply put, a computer built into the frame of a pair of glasses, and it’s the device that will make augmented reality part of our daily lives. With the half-inch (1.3 cm) display, which comes into focus when you look up and to the right, users will be able to take and share photos, video-chat, check appointments and access maps and the Web. Consumers should be able to buy Google Glass by 2014.

Next The MakerBot Replicator 2

Livefyre
Dan Forbes for TIME

Glass is, simply put, a computer built into the frame of a pair of glasses, and it’s the device that will make augmented reality part of our daily lives. With the half-inch (1.3 cm) display, which comes into focus when you look up and to the right, users will be able to take and share photos, video-chat, check appointments and access maps and the Web. Consumers should be able to buy Google Glass by 2014.

Next The MakerBot Replicator 2

Video

Video

Google Project Glass could feature bone conduction audio

google-project-glass-bone-conduction

Google Project Glass won't just tantilise your retinas – it could also titillate your auditory cortex, if this Google patent comes to fruition. The patent shows a pair of smart glasses that transmit sound using bone conduction technology.

We tried on the Panasonic RP-BTGS10 bone conduction headphones at CES and although they won’t be replacing ear buds anytime soon, we were impressed. Bone conduction audio seems ideally suited to Project Glass, since it doesn't require you to stick earbuds in your lugholes. That means you'll be able to hear alerts from your Google Glasses, or listen to music, while leaving your ear canals open to outside sound. Reading emails while crossing the road will be risky enough, without shutting off your hearing to the sound of screeching tyres and car horns.

The patent, below, shows that the bone conduction tech will be built into the arm of the glasses – Harry Potter’s specs, going by the design. Sure, a patent should be taken with a pinch of salt, but having seen Project Glass at CES, we reckon the buzz around Google Glasses is only set to build. Buzz, get it? Oh, please yourselves.

google-glass-bone-conduction

[USPO via Engadget]

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google-project-glass-bone-conduction

Google Project Glass won't just tantilise your retinas – it could also titillate your auditory cortex, if this Google patent comes to fruition. The patent shows a pair of smart glasses that transmit sound using bone conduction technology.

We tried on the Panasonic RP-BTGS10 bone conduction headphones at CES and although they won’t be replacing ear buds anytime soon, we were impressed. Bone conduction audio seems ideally suited to Project Glass, since it doesn't require you to stick earbuds in your lugholes. That means you'll be able to hear alerts from your Google Glasses, or listen to music, while leaving your ear canals open to outside sound. Reading emails while crossing the road will be risky enough, without shutting off your hearing to the sound of screeching tyres and car horns.

The patent, below, shows that the bone conduction tech will be built into the arm of the glasses – Harry Potter’s specs, going by the design. Sure, a patent should be taken with a pinch of salt, but having seen Project Glass at CES, we reckon the buzz around Google Glasses is only set to build. Buzz, get it? Oh, please yourselves.

google-glass-bone-conduction

[USPO via Engadget]

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Augmented reality

Augmented reality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Wikitude World Browser on the iPhone 3GS uses GPS and a solid state compass
Samsung SARI AR SDK markerless tracker used in the AR EdiBear game ( Android OS)
AR Tower Defense game on the Nokia N95 smartphone ( Symbian OS) uses fiduciary markers

Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality.[1] By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.[2][3] Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world.[4][5][6][7]

Contents

Technology

Hardware

Hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display, sensors and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones and tablet computers contain these elements which often include a camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer, GPS, and solid state compass, making them suitable AR platforms.[8]

Display

Various technologies are used in Augmented Reality rendering including optical projection systems, monitors, hand held devices, and display systems worn on one's person.

Head-mounted

A head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device paired to a headset such as a harness or helmet. HMDs place images of both the physical world and virtual objects over the user's field of view. Modern HMDs often employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world and adjust accordingly with the user's head movements.[9][10][11] HMDs can provide users immersive, mobile and collaborative AR experiences.[12]

Eyeglasses

AR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses. Versions include eye wear that employ cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display its augmented view through the eye pieces[13] and devices in which the AR imagery is projected through or reflected off the surfaces of the eye wear lens pieces.[14][15][16]

Contact lenses

Contact lenses that display AR imaging are in development. These bionic contact lenses might contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication.[17][18][19][20] Another version of contact lenses, in development for the U.S. Military, is designed to function with AR spectacles, allowing soldiers to focus on close-to-the-eye AR images on the spectacles and distant real world objects at the same time.[21][22]

Virtual retinal display

A virtual retinal display (VRD) is a personal display device under development at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology Laboratory. With this technology, a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye. The viewer sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front of them.[23]

EyeTap

The EyeTap (also known as Generation-2 Glass[24]) captures rays of light that would otherwise pass through the center of a lens of an eye of the wearer, and substituted each ray of light for synthetic computer-controlled light. The Generation-4 Glass[24] (Laser EyeTap) is similar to the VRD (i.e. it uses a computer controlled laser light source) except that it also has infinite depth of focus and causes the eye itself to, in effect, function as both a camera and a display, by way of exact alignment with the eye, and resynthesis (in laser light) of rays of light entering the eye.[25]

Handheld

Handheld displays employ a small display that fits in a user's hand. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employed fiduciary markers,[26] and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometergyroscope. Today SLAM markerless trackers such as PTAM are starting to come into use. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The two main advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and ubiquitous nature of camera phones. The disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times as well as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye.[27]

Spatial

Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) augments real world objects and scenes without the use of special displays such as monitors, head mounted displays or hand-held devices. SAR makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information onto physical objects. The key difference in SAR is that the display is separated from the users of the system. Because the displays are not associated with each user, SAR scales naturally up to groups of users, thus allowing for collocated collaboration between users. SAR has several advantages over traditional head-mounted displays and handheld devices. The user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes. This makes spatial AR a good candidate for collaborative work, as the users can see each other’s faces. A system can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear a head-mounted display.

Examples include shader lamps, mobile projectors, virtual tables, and smart projectors. Shader lamps mimic and augment reality by projecting imagery onto neutral objects, providing the opportunity to enhance the object’s appearance with materials of a simple unit- a projector, camera, and sensor. Handheld projectors further this goal by enabling cluster configurations of environment sensing, reducing the need for additional peripheral sensing.[28][29]

Other tangible applications include table and wall projections. One such innovation, the Extended Virtual Table, separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle.[30] Virtual showcases, which employ beam-splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays, provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and the real.[31][32] Altogether, current augmented reality display technology can be applied to improve design and visualization, or function as scientific simulations and tools for education or entertainment. Many more implementations and configurations make spatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative.[11]

Spatial AR does not suffer from the limited display resolution of current head-mounted displays and portable devices. A projector based display system can simply incorporate more projectors to expand the display area. Where portable devices have a small window into the world for drawing, a SAR system can display on any number of surfaces of an indoor setting at once. The drawbacks, however, are that SAR systems of projectors do not work so well in sunlight and also require a surface on which to project the computer-generated graphics. Augmentations cannot simply hang in the air as they do with handheld and HMD-based AR. The tangible nature of SAR, though, makes this an ideal technology to support design, as SAR supports both a graphical visualisation and passive haptic sensation for the end users. People are able to touch physical objects, and it is this process that provides the passive haptic sensation.[7][33][34][35]

Tracking

Modern mobile augmented reality systems use one or more of the following tracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors, accelerometers, GPS, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, RFID and wireless sensors. These technologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. Most important is the position and orientation of the user's head. Tracking the user's hand(s) or a handheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique.[36]

Input devices

Techniques include speech recognition systems that translate a user's spoken words into computer instructions and gesture recognition systems that can interpret a user's body movements by visual detection or from sensors embedded in a peripheral device such as a wand, stylus, pointer, glove or other body wear.[37][38][39][40]

Computer

The computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and position augmentations.

Software and algorithms

A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independent from the camera, from camera images. That process is called image registration which uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking.[41][42] Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry. Usually those methods consist of two parts.

First detect interest points, or fiduciary markers, or optical flow in the camera images. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blob detection, edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods.[43][44] The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained in the first stage. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiduciary markers) present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be precalculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. If no information about scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective (epipolar) geometry, geometric algebra, rotation representation with exponential map, kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization, robust statistics.

Applications

Augmented reality has many applications, and many areas can benefit from the usage of AR technology. AR was initially used for military, industrial, and medical applications, but was soon applied to commercial and entertainment areas as well.[45]

Archaeology

AR can be used to aid archaeological research, by augmenting archaeological features onto the modern landscape, enabling archaeologists to formulate conclusions about site placement and configuration.[46]

Another application given to AR in this field is the possibility for users to rebuild ruins, buildings, or even landscapes as they formerly existed.[47]

Architecture

AR can aid in visualizing building projects. Computer-generated images of a structure can be superimposed into a real life local view of a property before the physical building is constructed there. AR can also be employed within an architect's work space, rendering into their view animated 3D visualizations of their 2D drawings. Architecture sight-seeing can be enhanced with AR applications allowing users viewing a building's exterior to virtually see through its walls, viewing its interior objects and layout.[48][49]

Art

AR technology has helped disabled individuals create art by using eye tracking to translate a user's eye movements into drawings on a screen.[50] An item such as a commemorative coin can be designed so that when scanned by an AR-enabled device it displays additional objects and layers of information that were not visible in a real world view of it.[51][52]

Commerce

ViewAR BUTLERS App - Placing furniture using AR

AR can enhance product previews such as allowing a customer to view what's inside a product's packaging without opening it.[53] AR can also be used as an aid in selecting products from a catalog or through a kiosk. Scanned images of products can activate views of additional content such as customization options and additional images of the product in its use.[54][55] AR is used to integrate print and video marketing. Printed marketing material can be designed with certain "trigger" images that, when scanned by an AR enabled device using image recognition, activate a video version of the promotional material.[56][57][58]

Education

Augmented reality applications can complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a student’s real time environment. Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material can contain embedded “markers” that, when scanned by an AR device, produce supplementary information to the student rendered in a multimedia format.[59][60][61] Students can participate interactively with computer generated simulations of historical events, exploring and learning details of each significant area of the event site.[62] AR can aide students in understanding chemistry by allowing them to visualize the spatial structure of a molecule and interact with a virtual model of it that appears, in a camera image, positioned at a marker held in their hand.[63] Augmented reality technology also permits learning via remote collaboration, in which students and instructors not at the same physical location can share a common virtual learning environment populated by virtual objects and learning materials and interact with another within that setting.[64]

Everyday

30 years of Augmediated Reality in everyday life.

Since the 1970s and early 1980s, Steve Mann has been developing technologies meant for everyday use i.e. "horizontal" across all applications rather than a specific "vertical" market. Examples include Mann's "EyeTap Digital Eye Glass", a general-purpose seeing aid that does dynamic-range management (HDR vision) and overlays, underlays, simultaneous augmentation and diminishment (e.g. diminishing the electric arc while looking at a welding torch).[65]

Industrial design

AR can help industrial designers experience a product's design and operation before completion. Volkswagen uses AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery.[66] AR can be used to visualize and modify a car body structure and engine layout. AR can also be used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups for efficiently finding discrepancies between them.[67][68]

Medical

Augmented Reality can provide the surgeon with information, which are otherwise hidden, such as showing the heartbeat rate, the blood pressure, the state of the patient’s organ, etc. In particular AR can be used to let the doctor look inside the patient by combining one source of images such as as a X-ray with another such as video. This helps the doctor to identify the problem with the patient in a more intuitive way than looking at only type of image data. This approach works in a similar as the technicians doing maintenance work.

Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopy probes[69] or visualizing the position of a tumor in the video of an endoscope.[70] AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother's womb.[71] See also Mixed reality.

Military

In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time. From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center.[72]

Navigation

Augmented reality map on iPhone

AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can be displayed on an automobile's windshield indicating destination directions and meter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts to potential hazards in their path.[73][74][75] Aboard maritime vessels, AR can allow bridge watch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a ship's heading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks.[76]

Office workplace

AR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members in a work force via conferences with real and virtual participants. AR tasks can include brainstorming and discussion meetings utilizing common visualization via touch screen tables, interactive digital whiteboards, shared design spaces, and distributed control rooms.[77][78][79]

Sports and entertainment

AR has become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow "first down" line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsored images. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockey puck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker ball trajectories. [41][80]

AR can enhance concert and theater performances. For example, artists can allow listeners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to that of other bands/groups of users.[81][82][83]

The gaming industry has benefited a lot from the development of this technology. A number of games have been developed for prepared indoor environments. Early AR games also include AR air hockey, collaborative combat against virtual enemies, and an AR-enhanced pool games. A significant number of games incorporate AR in them and the introduction of the smartphone has made a bigger impact.[84][85][86]

Task support

Complex tasks such as assembly, maintenance, and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. For example, labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system.[87][88] Assembly lines gain many benefits from the usage of AR. In addition to Boeing, BMW and Volkswagen are known for incorporating this technology in their assembly line to improve their manufacturing and assembly processes.[89][90][91] Big machines are difficult to maintain because of the multiple layers or structures they have. With the use of AR the workers can complete their job in a much easier way because AR permits them to look through the machine as if it was with x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away.[92]

Tourism and sightseeing

Augmented reality applications can enhance a user's experience when traveling by providing real time informational displays regarding a location and its features, including comments made by previous visitors of the site. AR applications allow tourists to experience simulations of historical events, places and objects by rendering them into their current view of a landscape.[93][94][95] AR applications can also present location information by audio, announcing features of interest at a particular site as they become visible to the user.[96][97]

Translation

AR systems can interpret foreign text on signs and menus and, in a user's augmented view, re-display the text in the user's language. Spoken words of a foreign language can be translated and displayed in a user's view as printed subtitles.[98][99][100]

Notable researchers

  • Ivan Sutherland invented the first AR head-mounted display at Harvard University.
  • Steven Feiner, Professor at Columbia University, is a leading pioneer of augmented reality, and author of the first paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA (the Knowledge-based Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistant), along with Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann.[101]
  • Steve Mann formulated an earlier concept of Mediated reality in the 1970s and 1980s, using cameras, processors, and display systems to modify visual reality to help people see better (dynamic range management), building computerized welding helmets, as well as "Augmediated Reality" vision systems for use in everyday life.[102]
  • L.B. Rosenberg developed one of the first known AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, while working at the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Labs in 1991, and published first study of how an AR system can enhance human performance.[103]
  • Dieter Schmalstieg and Daniel Wagner jump started the field of AR on mobile phones. They developed the first marker tracking systems for mobile phones and PDAs.[104]
  • Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski develop the Tinmith system in 1998.[105] They along with Steve Feiner with his MARS system pioneer outdoor augmented reality.
  • Reinhold Behringer performed important early work in image registration for augmented reality, and prototype wearable testbeds for augmented reality. He also co-organized the First IEEE International Symposium on Augmented Reality in 1998 (IWAR'98), and co-edited one of the first books on augmented reality.[106][107][108]

History

  • 1901: L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronic display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case 'people'), it's named a 'character marker'.[109]
  • 1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.[110]
  • 1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a window into a virtual world.
  • 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects for the first time.
  • 1981: Dan Reitan (working at Kavouras Weather) geospatially maps multiple weather radar images (also space-based and studio cameras) to virtual reality Earth maps and abstract symbols for television weather broadcasts, bringing Augmented Reality to TV.
  • 1989: Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds.
  • 1990: The term "'Augmented Reality'" is believed to be attributed to Tom Caudell, a former Boeing [2] researcher.[111]
  • 1992: L.B. Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory—Armstrong, and demonstrates benefits to human performance.[103][112]
  • 1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first major paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface conference.
  • 1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications of the ACM - Special issue on computer augmented environments, edited by Pierre Wellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold.[113]
  • 1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the first demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators. Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, "Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training", 1999.[114]
  • 1994: Julie Martin creates first 'Augmented Reality Theater production', Dancing In Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts, features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time, projected into the same physical space and performance plane. The acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. The installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system.
  • 1998: Spatial Augmented Reality introduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Raskar, Welch, Fuchs.[33]
  • 1999: Hirokazu Kato (加藤 博一) created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR later was further developed by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH.
  • 2000: Bruce H. Thomas develops ARQuake, the first outdoor mobile AR game, demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable Computers.
  • 2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Android phone.[115]
  • 2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha, bringing augmented reality to the web browser.[116]

See also

References

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External links                                              

Augmented reality at the Open Directory Project

Media related to Augmented reality at Wikimedia Commons

Augmented reality

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Wikitude World Browser on the iPhone 3GS uses GPS and a solid state compass
Samsung SARI AR SDK markerless tracker used in the AR EdiBear game ( Android OS)
AR Tower Defense game on the Nokia N95 smartphone ( Symbian OS) uses fiduciary markers

Augmented reality (AR) is a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality.[1] By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.[2][3] Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match. With the help of advanced AR technology (e.g. adding computer vision and object recognition) the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally manipulable. Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world.[4][5][6][7]

Contents

Technology

Hardware

Hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display, sensors and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones and tablet computers contain these elements which often include a camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer, GPS, and solid state compass, making them suitable AR platforms.[8]

Display

Various technologies are used in Augmented Reality rendering including optical projection systems, monitors, hand held devices, and display systems worn on one's person.

Head-mounted

A head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device paired to a headset such as a harness or helmet. HMDs place images of both the physical world and virtual objects over the user's field of view. Modern HMDs often employ sensors for six degrees of freedom monitoring that allow the system to align virtual information to the physical world and adjust accordingly with the user's head movements.[9][10][11] HMDs can provide users immersive, mobile and collaborative AR experiences.[12]

Eyeglasses

AR displays can be rendered on devices resembling eyeglasses. Versions include eye wear that employ cameras to intercept the real world view and re-display its augmented view through the eye pieces[13] and devices in which the AR imagery is projected through or reflected off the surfaces of the eye wear lens pieces.[14][15][16]

Contact lenses

Contact lenses that display AR imaging are in development. These bionic contact lenses might contain the elements for display embedded into the lens including integrated circuitry, LEDs and an antenna for wireless communication.[17][18][19][20] Another version of contact lenses, in development for the U.S. Military, is designed to function with AR spectacles, allowing soldiers to focus on close-to-the-eye AR images on the spectacles and distant real world objects at the same time.[21][22]

Virtual retinal display

A virtual retinal display (VRD) is a personal display device under development at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology Laboratory. With this technology, a display is scanned directly onto the retina of a viewer's eye. The viewer sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front of them.[23]

EyeTap

The EyeTap (also known as Generation-2 Glass[24]) captures rays of light that would otherwise pass through the center of a lens of an eye of the wearer, and substituted each ray of light for synthetic computer-controlled light. The Generation-4 Glass[24] (Laser EyeTap) is similar to the VRD (i.e. it uses a computer controlled laser light source) except that it also has infinite depth of focus and causes the eye itself to, in effect, function as both a camera and a display, by way of exact alignment with the eye, and resynthesis (in laser light) of rays of light entering the eye.[25]

Handheld

Handheld displays employ a small display that fits in a user's hand. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employed fiduciary markers,[26] and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometergyroscope. Today SLAM markerless trackers such as PTAM are starting to come into use. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The two main advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and ubiquitous nature of camera phones. The disadvantages are the physical constraints of the user having to hold the handheld device out in front of them at all times as well as distorting effect of classically wide-angled mobile phone cameras when compared to the real world as viewed through the eye.[27]

Spatial

Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) augments real world objects and scenes without the use of special displays such as monitors, head mounted displays or hand-held devices. SAR makes use of digital projectors to display graphical information onto physical objects. The key difference in SAR is that the display is separated from the users of the system. Because the displays are not associated with each user, SAR scales naturally up to groups of users, thus allowing for collocated collaboration between users. SAR has several advantages over traditional head-mounted displays and handheld devices. The user is not required to carry equipment or wear the display over their eyes. This makes spatial AR a good candidate for collaborative work, as the users can see each other’s faces. A system can be used by multiple people at the same time without each having to wear a head-mounted display.

Examples include shader lamps, mobile projectors, virtual tables, and smart projectors. Shader lamps mimic and augment reality by projecting imagery onto neutral objects, providing the opportunity to enhance the object’s appearance with materials of a simple unit- a projector, camera, and sensor. Handheld projectors further this goal by enabling cluster configurations of environment sensing, reducing the need for additional peripheral sensing.[28][29]

Other tangible applications include table and wall projections. One such innovation, the Extended Virtual Table, separates the virtual from the real by including beam-splitter mirrors attached to the ceiling at an adjustable angle.[30] Virtual showcases, which employ beam-splitter mirrors together with multiple graphics displays, provide an interactive means of simultaneously engaging with the virtual and the real.[31][32] Altogether, current augmented reality display technology can be applied to improve design and visualization, or function as scientific simulations and tools for education or entertainment. Many more implementations and configurations make spatial augmented reality display an increasingly attractive interactive alternative.[11]

Spatial AR does not suffer from the limited display resolution of current head-mounted displays and portable devices. A projector based display system can simply incorporate more projectors to expand the display area. Where portable devices have a small window into the world for drawing, a SAR system can display on any number of surfaces of an indoor setting at once. The drawbacks, however, are that SAR systems of projectors do not work so well in sunlight and also require a surface on which to project the computer-generated graphics. Augmentations cannot simply hang in the air as they do with handheld and HMD-based AR. The tangible nature of SAR, though, makes this an ideal technology to support design, as SAR supports both a graphical visualisation and passive haptic sensation for the end users. People are able to touch physical objects, and it is this process that provides the passive haptic sensation.[7][33][34][35]

Tracking

Modern mobile augmented reality systems use one or more of the following tracking technologies: digital cameras and/or other optical sensors, accelerometers, GPS, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, RFID and wireless sensors. These technologies offer varying levels of accuracy and precision. Most important is the position and orientation of the user's head. Tracking the user's hand(s) or a handheld input device can provide a 6DOF interaction technique.[36]

Input devices

Techniques include speech recognition systems that translate a user's spoken words into computer instructions and gesture recognition systems that can interpret a user's body movements by visual detection or from sensors embedded in a peripheral device such as a wand, stylus, pointer, glove or other body wear.[37][38][39][40]

Computer

The computer analyzes the sensed visual and other data to synthesize and position augmentations.

Software and algorithms

A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independent from the camera, from camera images. That process is called image registration which uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking.[41][42] Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry. Usually those methods consist of two parts.

First detect interest points, or fiduciary markers, or optical flow in the camera images. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blob detection, edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods.[43][44] The second stage restores a real world coordinate system from the data obtained in the first stage. Some methods assume objects with known geometry (or fiduciary markers) present in the scene. In some of those cases the scene 3D structure should be precalculated beforehand. If part of the scene is unknown simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) can map relative positions. If no information about scene geometry is available, structure from motion methods like bundle adjustment are used. Mathematical methods used in the second stage include projective (epipolar) geometry, geometric algebra, rotation representation with exponential map, kalman and particle filters, nonlinear optimization, robust statistics.

Applications

Augmented reality has many applications, and many areas can benefit from the usage of AR technology. AR was initially used for military, industrial, and medical applications, but was soon applied to commercial and entertainment areas as well.[45]

Archaeology

AR can be used to aid archaeological research, by augmenting archaeological features onto the modern landscape, enabling archaeologists to formulate conclusions about site placement and configuration.[46]

Another application given to AR in this field is the possibility for users to rebuild ruins, buildings, or even landscapes as they formerly existed.[47]

Architecture

AR can aid in visualizing building projects. Computer-generated images of a structure can be superimposed into a real life local view of a property before the physical building is constructed there. AR can also be employed within an architect's work space, rendering into their view animated 3D visualizations of their 2D drawings. Architecture sight-seeing can be enhanced with AR applications allowing users viewing a building's exterior to virtually see through its walls, viewing its interior objects and layout.[48][49]

Art

AR technology has helped disabled individuals create art by using eye tracking to translate a user's eye movements into drawings on a screen.[50] An item such as a commemorative coin can be designed so that when scanned by an AR-enabled device it displays additional objects and layers of information that were not visible in a real world view of it.[51][52]

Commerce

ViewAR BUTLERS App - Placing furniture using AR

AR can enhance product previews such as allowing a customer to view what's inside a product's packaging without opening it.[53] AR can also be used as an aid in selecting products from a catalog or through a kiosk. Scanned images of products can activate views of additional content such as customization options and additional images of the product in its use.[54][55] AR is used to integrate print and video marketing. Printed marketing material can be designed with certain "trigger" images that, when scanned by an AR enabled device using image recognition, activate a video version of the promotional material.[56][57][58]

Education

Augmented reality applications can complement a standard curriculum. Text, graphics, video and audio can be superimposed into a student’s real time environment. Textbooks, flashcards and other educational reading material can contain embedded “markers” that, when scanned by an AR device, produce supplementary information to the student rendered in a multimedia format.[59][60][61] Students can participate interactively with computer generated simulations of historical events, exploring and learning details of each significant area of the event site.[62] AR can aide students in understanding chemistry by allowing them to visualize the spatial structure of a molecule and interact with a virtual model of it that appears, in a camera image, positioned at a marker held in their hand.[63] Augmented reality technology also permits learning via remote collaboration, in which students and instructors not at the same physical location can share a common virtual learning environment populated by virtual objects and learning materials and interact with another within that setting.[64]

Everyday

30 years of Augmediated Reality in everyday life.

Since the 1970s and early 1980s, Steve Mann has been developing technologies meant for everyday use i.e. "horizontal" across all applications rather than a specific "vertical" market. Examples include Mann's "EyeTap Digital Eye Glass", a general-purpose seeing aid that does dynamic-range management (HDR vision) and overlays, underlays, simultaneous augmentation and diminishment (e.g. diminishing the electric arc while looking at a welding torch).[65]

Industrial design

AR can help industrial designers experience a product's design and operation before completion. Volkswagen uses AR for comparing calculated and actual crash test imagery.[66] AR can be used to visualize and modify a car body structure and engine layout. AR can also be used to compare digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups for efficiently finding discrepancies between them.[67][68]

Medical

Augmented Reality can provide the surgeon with information, which are otherwise hidden, such as showing the heartbeat rate, the blood pressure, the state of the patient’s organ, etc. In particular AR can be used to let the doctor look inside the patient by combining one source of images such as as a X-ray with another such as video. This helps the doctor to identify the problem with the patient in a more intuitive way than looking at only type of image data. This approach works in a similar as the technicians doing maintenance work.

Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and confocal microscopy probes[69] or visualizing the position of a tumor in the video of an endoscope.[70] AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother's womb.[71] See also Mixed reality.

Military

In combat, AR can serve as a networked communication system that renders useful battlefield data onto a soldier's goggles in real time. From the soldier's viewpoint, people and various objects can be marked with special indicators to warn of potential dangers. Virtual maps and 360° view camera imaging can also be rendered to aid a soldier's navigation and battlefield perspective, and this can be transmitted to military leaders at a remote command center.[72]

Navigation

Augmented reality map on iPhone

AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices. Information can be displayed on an automobile's windshield indicating destination directions and meter, weather, terrain, road conditions and traffic information as well as alerts to potential hazards in their path.[73][74][75] Aboard maritime vessels, AR can allow bridge watch-standers to continuously monitor important information such as a ship's heading and speed while moving throughout the bridge or performing other tasks.[76]

Office workplace

AR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members in a work force via conferences with real and virtual participants. AR tasks can include brainstorming and discussion meetings utilizing common visualization via touch screen tables, interactive digital whiteboards, shared design spaces, and distributed control rooms.[77][78][79]

Sports and entertainment

AR has become common in sports telecasting. Sports and entertainment venues are provided with see-through and overlay augmentation through tracked camera feeds for enhanced viewing by the audience. Examples include the yellow "first down" line seen in television broadcasts of American football games showing the line the offensive team must cross to receive a first down. AR is also used in association with football and other sporting events to show commercial advertisements overlaid onto the view of the playing area. Sections of rugby fields and cricket pitches also display sponsored images. Swimming telecasts often add a line across the lanes to indicate the position of the current record holder as a race proceeds to allow viewers to compare the current race to the best performance. Other examples include hockey puck tracking and annotations of racing car performance and snooker ball trajectories. [41][80]

AR can enhance concert and theater performances. For example, artists can allow listeners to augment their listening experience by adding their performance to that of other bands/groups of users.[81][82][83]

The gaming industry has benefited a lot from the development of this technology. A number of games have been developed for prepared indoor environments. Early AR games also include AR air hockey, collaborative combat against virtual enemies, and an AR-enhanced pool games. A significant number of games incorporate AR in them and the introduction of the smartphone has made a bigger impact.[84][85][86]

Task support

Complex tasks such as assembly, maintenance, and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. For example, labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system.[87][88] Assembly lines gain many benefits from the usage of AR. In addition to Boeing, BMW and Volkswagen are known for incorporating this technology in their assembly line to improve their manufacturing and assembly processes.[89][90][91] Big machines are difficult to maintain because of the multiple layers or structures they have. With the use of AR the workers can complete their job in a much easier way because AR permits them to look through the machine as if it was with x-ray, pointing them to the problem right away.[92]

Tourism and sightseeing

Augmented reality applications can enhance a user's experience when traveling by providing real time informational displays regarding a location and its features, including comments made by previous visitors of the site. AR applications allow tourists to experience simulations of historical events, places and objects by rendering them into their current view of a landscape.[93][94][95] AR applications can also present location information by audio, announcing features of interest at a particular site as they become visible to the user.[96][97]

Translation

AR systems can interpret foreign text on signs and menus and, in a user's augmented view, re-display the text in the user's language. Spoken words of a foreign language can be translated and displayed in a user's view as printed subtitles.[98][99][100]

Notable researchers

  • Ivan Sutherland invented the first AR head-mounted display at Harvard University.
  • Steven Feiner, Professor at Columbia University, is a leading pioneer of augmented reality, and author of the first paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA (the Knowledge-based Augmented Reality Maintenance Assistant), along with Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann.[101]
  • Steve Mann formulated an earlier concept of Mediated reality in the 1970s and 1980s, using cameras, processors, and display systems to modify visual reality to help people see better (dynamic range management), building computerized welding helmets, as well as "Augmediated Reality" vision systems for use in everyday life.[102]
  • L.B. Rosenberg developed one of the first known AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, while working at the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Labs in 1991, and published first study of how an AR system can enhance human performance.[103]
  • Dieter Schmalstieg and Daniel Wagner jump started the field of AR on mobile phones. They developed the first marker tracking systems for mobile phones and PDAs.[104]
  • Bruce H. Thomas and Wayne Piekarski develop the Tinmith system in 1998.[105] They along with Steve Feiner with his MARS system pioneer outdoor augmented reality.
  • Reinhold Behringer performed important early work in image registration for augmented reality, and prototype wearable testbeds for augmented reality. He also co-organized the First IEEE International Symposium on Augmented Reality in 1998 (IWAR'98), and co-edited one of the first books on augmented reality.[106][107][108]

History

  • 1901: L. Frank Baum, an author, first mentions the idea of an electronic display/spectacles that overlays data onto real life (in this case 'people'), it's named a 'character marker'.[109]
  • 1957–62: Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell.[110]
  • 1966: Ivan Sutherland invents the head-mounted display and positions it as a window into a virtual world.
  • 1975: Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects for the first time.
  • 1981: Dan Reitan (working at Kavouras Weather) geospatially maps multiple weather radar images (also space-based and studio cameras) to virtual reality Earth maps and abstract symbols for television weather broadcasts, bringing Augmented Reality to TV.
  • 1989: Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds.
  • 1990: The term "'Augmented Reality'" is believed to be attributed to Tom Caudell, a former Boeing [2] researcher.[111]
  • 1992: L.B. Rosenberg develops one of the first functioning AR systems, called Virtual Fixtures, at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory—Armstrong, and demonstrates benefits to human performance.[103][112]
  • 1992: Steven Feiner, Blair MacIntyre and Doree Seligmann present the first major paper on an AR system prototype, KARMA, at the Graphics Interface conference.
  • 1993 A widely cited version of the paper above is published in Communications of the ACM - Special issue on computer augmented environments, edited by Pierre Wellner, Wendy Mackay, and Rich Gold.[113]
  • 1993: Loral WDL, with sponsorship from STRICOM, performed the first demonstration combining live AR-equipped vehicles and manned simulators. Unpublished paper, J. Barrilleaux, "Experiences and Observations in Applying Augmented Reality to Live Training", 1999.[114]
  • 1994: Julie Martin creates first 'Augmented Reality Theater production', Dancing In Cyberspace, funded by the Australia Council for the Arts, features dancers and acrobats manipulating body–sized virtual object in real time, projected into the same physical space and performance plane. The acrobats appeared immersed within the virtual object and environments. The installation used Silicon Graphics computers and Polhemus sensing system.
  • 1998: Spatial Augmented Reality introduced at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Raskar, Welch, Fuchs.[33]
  • 1999: Hirokazu Kato (加藤 博一) created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR later was further developed by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH.
  • 2000: Bruce H. Thomas develops ARQuake, the first outdoor mobile AR game, demonstrating it in the International Symposium on Wearable Computers.
  • 2008: Wikitude AR Travel Guide launches on 20 Oct 2008 with the G1 Android phone.[115]
  • 2009: ARToolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha, bringing augmented reality to the web browser.[116]

See also

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External links                                              

Augmented reality at the Open Directory Project

Media related to Augmented reality at Wikimedia Commons

"How Augmented Reality Will Work"

Video games have been entertaining us for nearly 30 years, ever since Pong was introduced to arcades in the early 1970s. Computer graphics have become much more sophisticated since then, and game graphics are pushing the barriers of photorealism. Now, researchers and engineers are pulling graphics out of your television screen or computer display and integrating them into real-world environments. This new technology, called augmented reality, blurs the line between what's real and what's computer-generated by enhancing what we see, hear, feel and smell.

On the spectrum between virtual reality, which creates immersive, computer-generated environments, and the real world, augmented reality is closer to the real world. Augmented reality adds graphics, sounds, haptic feedback and smell to the natural world as it exists. Both video games and cell phones are driving the development of augmented reality. Everyone from tourists, to soldiers, to someone looking for the closest subway stop can now benefit from the ability to place computer-generated graphics in their field of vision.

Augmented reality is changing the way we view the world -- or at least the way its users see the world. Picture yourself walking or driving down the street. With augmented-reality displays, which will eventually look much like a normal pair of glasses, informative graphics will appear in your field of view, and audio will coincide with whatever you see. These enhancements will be refreshed continually to reflect the movements of your head. Similar devices and applications already exist, particularly on smartphones like the iPhone.

In this article, we'll take a look at where augmented reality is now and where it may be headed soon.

 

Video games have been entertaining us for nearly 30 years, ever since Pong was introduced to arcades in the early 1970s. Computer graphics have become much more sophisticated since then, and game graphics are pushing the barriers of photorealism. Now, researchers and engineers are pulling graphics out of your television screen or computer display and integrating them into real-world environments. This new technology, called augmented reality, blurs the line between what's real and what's computer-generated by enhancing what we see, hear, feel and smell.

On the spectrum between virtual reality, which creates immersive, computer-generated environments, and the real world, augmented reality is closer to the real world. Augmented reality adds graphics, sounds, haptic feedback and smell to the natural world as it exists. Both video games and cell phones are driving the development of augmented reality. Everyone from tourists, to soldiers, to someone looking for the closest subway stop can now benefit from the ability to place computer-generated graphics in their field of vision.

Augmented reality is changing the way we view the world -- or at least the way its users see the world. Picture yourself walking or driving down the street. With augmented-reality displays, which will eventually look much like a normal pair of glasses, informative graphics will appear in your field of view, and audio will coincide with whatever you see. These enhancements will be refreshed continually to reflect the movements of your head. Similar devices and applications already exist, particularly on smartphones like the iPhone.

In this article, we'll take a look at where augmented reality is now and where it may be headed soon.

 

How to get Google Glass

How It Feels [through Glass]

How It Feels [through Glass]