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Recursos sobre Elaboración de Rúbricas

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Rubric Guidelines

Rubric Guidelines  

Steps in Rubric Development

  1. Determine learning outcomes
  2. Keep it short and simple (Include 4 - 15 items; use brief statements or phrases)
  3. Each rubric item should focus on a different skill
  4. Focus on how students develop and express their learning
  5. Evaluate only measureable criteria
  6. Ideally, the entire rubric should fit on one sheet of paper
  7. Reevaluate the rubric (Did it work? Was it sufficiently detailed?)

Terms to use in measuring range/scoring levels

Needs Improvement...Satisfactory...Good...Exemplary

Beginning...Developing...Accomplished...Exemplary

Needs work...Good...Excellent

Novice...Apprentice...Proficient...Distinguished

Numeric scale ranging from 1 to 5, for example

After you write your first paragraph of the highest level, circle the words in that paragraph that can vary. These words will be the ones that you will change as you write the less than top level performances.

Concept words that convey various degrees of performance

Depth...Breadth...Quality...Scope...Extent...Complexity...Degrees...Accuracy

Presence to absence

Complete to incomplete

Many to some to none

Major to minor

Consistent to inconsistent

Frequency: always to generally to sometimes to rarely

Return to Rubric Module

This page by Nancy Pickett . Last updated March 31, 1999 by Bernie Dodge.

Rubric Guidelines  

Steps in Rubric Development

  1. Determine learning outcomes
  2. Keep it short and simple (Include 4 - 15 items; use brief statements or phrases)
  3. Each rubric item should focus on a different skill
  4. Focus on how students develop and express their learning
  5. Evaluate only measureable criteria
  6. Ideally, the entire rubric should fit on one sheet of paper
  7. Reevaluate the rubric (Did it work? Was it sufficiently detailed?)

Terms to use in measuring range/scoring levels

Needs Improvement...Satisfactory...Good...Exemplary

Beginning...Developing...Accomplished...Exemplary

Needs work...Good...Excellent

Novice...Apprentice...Proficient...Distinguished

Numeric scale ranging from 1 to 5, for example

After you write your first paragraph of the highest level, circle the words in that paragraph that can vary. These words will be the ones that you will change as you write the less than top level performances.

Concept words that convey various degrees of performance

Depth...Breadth...Quality...Scope...Extent...Complexity...Degrees...Accuracy

Presence to absence

Complete to incomplete

Many to some to none

Major to minor

Consistent to inconsistent

Frequency: always to generally to sometimes to rarely

Return to Rubric Module

This page by Nancy Pickett . Last updated March 31, 1999 by Bernie Dodge.

Quality Rubrics / Tools for Writing Rubrics

The first step in writing a rubric is to investigate if the process, product or performance that students will be engaged in deserves a rubric. Once you've established that a rubric is a good fit, there are several different starting options. For example, you can:

  • revise rubrics you've found online that you really like
  • use a protocol to develop a rubric from pre-existing rubrics from colleagues or on-line (Word Doc)
  • use a protocol to develop a rubric from student work (Word Doc)
  • start from standards, learning outcomes, or essential questions
  • develop a rubric with your students (Word Doc)
  • develop a rubric from a checklist (Word Doc

 

A few tools to support you as you develop your rubric:

  • Rubric Resource Packet (PDF). Contains sample rubrics - not examplars of Quality Rubrics per se, rather a diverse range of rubrics
  • My annotated Diigo library on various types of rubrics 
  • Troubleshooting your first draft
    • Thinking about describing those "lower" levels (Hint: it's not about what they're doing wrong)
  • Additional ways to support and work with students around the issue of quality
  • Tips for writing Quality Rubrics
  • A checklist (PDF) for Quality Rubrics
  • A self-assessment or peer review feedback form for Quality Rubrics (Word Doc)
  • A process for when you absolutely must use a rubric in a grading schema  
  • And of course, two rubrics for rubrics

 

A note regarding copyright - these resources are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Please contact me if you have any questions about citation or sources. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first step in writing a rubric is to investigate if the process, product or performance that students will be engaged in deserves a rubric. Once you've established that a rubric is a good fit, there are several different starting options. For example, you can:

  • revise rubrics you've found online that you really like
  • use a protocol to develop a rubric from pre-existing rubrics from colleagues or on-line (Word Doc)
  • use a protocol to develop a rubric from student work (Word Doc)
  • start from standards, learning outcomes, or essential questions
  • develop a rubric with your students (Word Doc)
  • develop a rubric from a checklist (Word Doc

 

A few tools to support you as you develop your rubric:

  • Rubric Resource Packet (PDF). Contains sample rubrics - not examplars of Quality Rubrics per se, rather a diverse range of rubrics
  • My annotated Diigo library on various types of rubrics 
  • Troubleshooting your first draft
    • Thinking about describing those "lower" levels (Hint: it's not about what they're doing wrong)
  • Additional ways to support and work with students around the issue of quality
  • Tips for writing Quality Rubrics
  • A checklist (PDF) for Quality Rubrics
  • A self-assessment or peer review feedback form for Quality Rubrics (Word Doc)
  • A process for when you absolutely must use a rubric in a grading schema  
  • And of course, two rubrics for rubrics

 

A note regarding copyright - these resources are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Please contact me if you have any questions about citation or sources. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rubric Tutorial

Creating a rubric is easy once you have taken to time to evaluate the dimesions/tasks which make up the students performance, and the criterion you will use to evaluate it. That being said, let’s begin with the steps to create a rubric.*

The steps to create a rubric are listed in sequential order, however they can be performed in any order as long as the rubric contains the following:
-Performance Objective
-List of dimensions to be evaluated
-Levels of gradation of quality
-Criterion and points for each level of quality

We have divided the task of creating a grading rubric into 6 steps:
1. Record the performance objective
2. Identify the dimensions/tasks comprising the performance
3. Identify the potential gradations of quality
4. Assign a point value to each gradation, and a total point value for the assessment
5. Identify the criteria for each level of quality within a dimension/task
6. Create the rubric table

 

Step 1: Record/write the performance objective.
Performance Objectives (also known as learning objectives) are statements which identify the specific knowledge, skill, or attitude the learner should gain and display as a result of the instructional activity.

Performance objectives should consist of 3 elements:
-- Student Performance
-- Conditions
-- Criteria

The Student performance is the observable behavior that a student will do to demonstrate that the lesson is learned. The conditions are the tools, resources and enviroment where the performance will take place. The criteria is the accuracy level assigned to the performance. As mentioned above, the rubric is the written document communicating the criteria to the student.

Below is an example of a performance statement without the criteria. (The criteria will be written in the form of a rubric.)

You do not have to list the conditions for the student when writing the performance statement. However, if you identify them when you are creating your course it will help you preplan the resources you may need to generate for this performance.

 

Step 2: Identify the dimensions/tasks comprising the performance.
Dimensions are the broad concepts or specific tasks the student should demonstrate when performing the activity. Dimensions can be specific tasks or they can address a variety of intellectual or cognitive competencies that target a specific academic discipline or involve multiple disciplines. The dimensions you use may also be defined by National Standards, degreed programs, or job-related competencies.

Examples of dimensions for a group exercise analyzing a case study may include:
• Contribute to the group discussion
• Take responsibility for required work
• Value others viewpoints
• Analyze the study cooperatively
• Present the outcome in a given format

Here are a few more examples:
Example of dimensions which are
specific tasks for a written project
Example of dimensions which are broad concepts for an online discussion
Example of dimensions which are broad concepts and tasks for a presentation

How many dimensions are enough? There is not clear answer. Try to fit the rubric on 1-2 pages. You will notice our examples have between 4-8 dimensions/tasks.

 

Step 3: Identify the potential gradations of quality.
Gradations are the descriptive levels of quality starting with the worst quality up to the best quality.

--Example of a 3 level gradation: poor, average, excellent
--Example of a 4 level gradation: beginning, developing, accomplished, exemplary
--Example of a 5 level gradation: poor, fair, average, very good, excellent

The gradations of quality may or may not be listed on the actual rubric. You can have different gradations for the dimensions listed, but this may be confusing to the student.

Step 4: Assign a point value to each gradation, and a total point value for the assessment.
Assign a point value to each gradation of quality, and identify the total point value for the assessment.

If you already know the total number of points for this assessment...
Divide the total number of points by the number of dimensions to get the maximum point value for achieving the highest gradation for a dimension. For example, if the assessment is worth 15 points, and there are 5 dimensions, the highest gradation will be worth 3 points. Each gradation below this highest level should be valued at less than the 3 points.

If you do not have a total number of points for this assessment...
Identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality. Assign a number to each of the lower levels of quality. Typically, the gradations are in increments of 1 point. Multiply the maximum point value by the total number of dimensions. This is the total point value for the assessment. For example, if you have 3 levels (poor, average, excellent) the highest level is worth 3 points, the middle level is worth 2 points and the lowest level is worth 1 point. If there are 7 dimensions, the total point value for this assessment is 21 points.

See an example of a rubric with points assigned to the 3 levels of quality

Although most rubrics have at least 1 point for the lowest value, you can have a zero for the lowest gradation.

 

Step 5: Identify the criteria for each level of quality within a dimension/task.
Start with the best quality of each dimension. Simply list the specific expectations you have for the student. Then, for each level below the best quality, identify the flaws or missing elements which will cause the student to lose points off the best quality performance.

View a rubric with criteria for a written research proposal project
View a rubric with criteria for an online discussion
View a rubric with criteria for an oral presentation

Avoid negative language when listing the criteria. Instead try to identify the specific criteriawhich is missing, or flaw so they know why they were assessed with a lower quality performance.

 

Step 6: Create the rubric table.
Your rubric will be a table. Each dimension should be in a separate row, and each gradation of quality should be in a separate column. Provide a place at the top of the rubric for your performance statement, an extra row for the header, and a column on the left to list the dimensions. If you plan to use this rubric as a method of feedback to the students. Create an additional column on the right side of the page where you can place the point values earned for each dimension. We have created a few templates as a starting point.

Download a template with 3 gradations of quality
Download a template with 4 gradations of quality
Download a template with 5 gradations of quality

Note: You can modify these templates to meet your needs.

You do not have to list the descriptive words for each quality degradation, only the points they will earn if they meet this level of quality.

Creating a rubric is easy once you have taken to time to evaluate the dimesions/tasks which make up the students performance, and the criterion you will use to evaluate it. That being said, let’s begin with the steps to create a rubric.*

The steps to create a rubric are listed in sequential order, however they can be performed in any order as long as the rubric contains the following:
-Performance Objective
-List of dimensions to be evaluated
-Levels of gradation of quality
-Criterion and points for each level of quality

We have divided the task of creating a grading rubric into 6 steps:
1. Record the performance objective
2. Identify the dimensions/tasks comprising the performance
3. Identify the potential gradations of quality
4. Assign a point value to each gradation, and a total point value for the assessment
5. Identify the criteria for each level of quality within a dimension/task
6. Create the rubric table

 

Step 1: Record/write the performance objective.
Performance Objectives (also known as learning objectives) are statements which identify the specific knowledge, skill, or attitude the learner should gain and display as a result of the instructional activity.

Performance objectives should consist of 3 elements:
-- Student Performance
-- Conditions
-- Criteria

The Student performance is the observable behavior that a student will do to demonstrate that the lesson is learned. The conditions are the tools, resources and enviroment where the performance will take place. The criteria is the accuracy level assigned to the performance. As mentioned above, the rubric is the written document communicating the criteria to the student.

Below is an example of a performance statement without the criteria. (The criteria will be written in the form of a rubric.)

You do not have to list the conditions for the student when writing the performance statement. However, if you identify them when you are creating your course it will help you preplan the resources you may need to generate for this performance.

 

Step 2: Identify the dimensions/tasks comprising the performance.
Dimensions are the broad concepts or specific tasks the student should demonstrate when performing the activity. Dimensions can be specific tasks or they can address a variety of intellectual or cognitive competencies that target a specific academic discipline or involve multiple disciplines. The dimensions you use may also be defined by National Standards, degreed programs, or job-related competencies.

Examples of dimensions for a group exercise analyzing a case study may include:
• Contribute to the group discussion
• Take responsibility for required work
• Value others viewpoints
• Analyze the study cooperatively
• Present the outcome in a given format

Here are a few more examples:
Example of dimensions which are
specific tasks for a written project
Example of dimensions which are broad concepts for an online discussion
Example of dimensions which are broad concepts and tasks for a presentation

How many dimensions are enough? There is not clear answer. Try to fit the rubric on 1-2 pages. You will notice our examples have between 4-8 dimensions/tasks.

 

Step 3: Identify the potential gradations of quality.
Gradations are the descriptive levels of quality starting with the worst quality up to the best quality.

--Example of a 3 level gradation: poor, average, excellent
--Example of a 4 level gradation: beginning, developing, accomplished, exemplary
--Example of a 5 level gradation: poor, fair, average, very good, excellent

The gradations of quality may or may not be listed on the actual rubric. You can have different gradations for the dimensions listed, but this may be confusing to the student.

Step 4: Assign a point value to each gradation, and a total point value for the assessment.
Assign a point value to each gradation of quality, and identify the total point value for the assessment.

If you already know the total number of points for this assessment...
Divide the total number of points by the number of dimensions to get the maximum point value for achieving the highest gradation for a dimension. For example, if the assessment is worth 15 points, and there are 5 dimensions, the highest gradation will be worth 3 points. Each gradation below this highest level should be valued at less than the 3 points.

If you do not have a total number of points for this assessment...
Identify the maximum number of points for achieving the highest level of quality. Assign a number to each of the lower levels of quality. Typically, the gradations are in increments of 1 point. Multiply the maximum point value by the total number of dimensions. This is the total point value for the assessment. For example, if you have 3 levels (poor, average, excellent) the highest level is worth 3 points, the middle level is worth 2 points and the lowest level is worth 1 point. If there are 7 dimensions, the total point value for this assessment is 21 points.

See an example of a rubric with points assigned to the 3 levels of quality

Although most rubrics have at least 1 point for the lowest value, you can have a zero for the lowest gradation.

 

Step 5: Identify the criteria for each level of quality within a dimension/task.
Start with the best quality of each dimension. Simply list the specific expectations you have for the student. Then, for each level below the best quality, identify the flaws or missing elements which will cause the student to lose points off the best quality performance.

View a rubric with criteria for a written research proposal project
View a rubric with criteria for an online discussion
View a rubric with criteria for an oral presentation

Avoid negative language when listing the criteria. Instead try to identify the specific criteriawhich is missing, or flaw so they know why they were assessed with a lower quality performance.

 

Step 6: Create the rubric table.
Your rubric will be a table. Each dimension should be in a separate row, and each gradation of quality should be in a separate column. Provide a place at the top of the rubric for your performance statement, an extra row for the header, and a column on the left to list the dimensions. If you plan to use this rubric as a method of feedback to the students. Create an additional column on the right side of the page where you can place the point values earned for each dimension. We have created a few templates as a starting point.

Download a template with 3 gradations of quality
Download a template with 4 gradations of quality
Download a template with 5 gradations of quality

Note: You can modify these templates to meet your needs.

You do not have to list the descriptive words for each quality degradation, only the points they will earn if they meet this level of quality.

Designing scoring rubrics for your classroom. Mertler, Craig A.

Craig A. Mertler
Bowling Green State University

Rubrics are rating scales-as opposed to checklists-that are used with performance assessments. They are formally defined as scoring guides, consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessments. Rubrics are typically the specific form of scoring instrument used when evaluating student performances or products resulting from a performance task.

There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytic (see Figure 1). A holistic rubric requires the teacher to score the overall process or product as a whole, without judging the component parts separately (Nitko, 2001). In contrast, with an analytic rubric, the teacher scores separate, individual parts of the product or performance first, then sums the individual scores to obtain a total score (Moskal, 2000; Nitko, 2001).

Figure 1: 
Types of scoring instruments for performance assessments

Holistic rubrics are customarily utilized when errors in some part of the process can be tolerated provided the overall quality is high (Chase, 1999). Nitko (2001) further states that use of holistic rubrics is probably more appropriate when performance tasks require students to create some sort of response and where there is no definitive correct answer. The focus of a score reported using a holistic rubric is on the overall quality, proficiency, or understanding of the specific content and skills-it involves assessment on a unidimensional level (Mertler, 2001). Use of holistic rubrics can result in a somewhat quicker scoring process than use of analytic rubrics (Nitko, 2001). This is basically due to the fact that the teacher is required to read through or otherwise examine the student product or performance only once, in order to get an "overall" sense of what the student was able to accomplish (Mertler, 2001). Since assessment of the overall performance is the key, holistic rubrics are also typically, though not exclusively, used when the purpose of the performance assessment is summative in nature. At most, only limited feedback is provided to the student as a result of scoring performance tasks in this manner. A template for holistic scoring rubrics is presented in Table 1.

Table 1:
Template for Holistic Rubrics
Score Description
5 Demonstrates complete understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included in response.
4 Demonstrates considerable understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included.
3  Demonstrates partial understanding of the problem. Most requirements of task are included.
2 Demonstrates little understanding of the problem. Many requirements of task are missing.
1 Demonstrates no understanding of the problem.
0 No response/task not attempted.

Analytic rubrics are usually preferred when a fairly focused type of response is required (Nitko, 2001); that is, for performance tasks in which there may be one or two acceptable responses and creativity is not an essential feature of the students' responses. Furthermore, analytic rubrics result initially in several scores, followed by a summed total score-their use represents assessment on a multidimensional level (Mertler, 2001). As previously mentioned, the use of analytic rubrics can cause the scoring process to be substantially slower, mainly because assessing several different skills or characteristics individually requires a teacher to examine the product several times. Both their construction and use can be quite time-consuming. A general rule of thumb is that an individual's work should be examined a separate time for each of the specific performance tasks or scoring criteria (Mertler, 2001). However, the advantage to the use of analytic rubrics is quite substantial. The degree of feedback offered to students-and to teachers-is significant. Students receive specific feedback on their performance with respect to each of the individual scoring criteria-something that does not happen when using holistic rubrics (Nitko, 2001). It is possible to then create a "profile" of specific student strengths and weaknesses (Mertler, 2001). A template for analytic scoring rubrics is presented in Table 2.

Table 2: 
Template for analytic rubrics
 

Beginning
1

Developing
2

Accomplished
3

Exemplary
4

Score

Criteria #1

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

Criteria #2

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

Criteria #3

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

Criteria #4

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

 

Prior to designing a specific rubric, a teacher must decide whether the performance or product will be scored holistically or analytically (Airasian, 2000 & 2001). Regardless of which type of rubric is selected, specific performance criteria and observable indicators must be identified as an initial step to development. The decision regarding the use of a holistic or analytic approach to scoring has several possible implications. The most important of these is that teachers must consider first how they intend to use the results. If an overall, summative score is desired, a holistic scoring approach would be more desirable. In contrast, if formative feedback is the goal, an analytic scoring rubric should be used. It is important to note that one type of rubric is not inherently better than the other-you must find a format that works best for your purposes (Montgomery, 2001). Other implications include the time requirements, the nature of the task itself, and the specific performance criteria being observed. 

As you saw demonstrated in the templates (Tables 1 and 2), the various levels of student performance can be defined using either quantitative (i.e., numerical) or qualitative (i.e., descriptive) labels. In some instances, teachers might want to utilize both quantitative and qualitative labels. If a rubric contains four levels of proficiency or understanding on a continuum, quantitative labels would typically range from "1" to "4." When using qualitative labels, teachers have much more flexibility, and can be more creative. A common type of qualitative scale might include the following labels: master, expert, apprentice, and novice. Nearly any type of qualitative scale will suffice, provided it "fits" with the task. 

One potentially frustrating aspect of scoring student work with rubrics is the issue of somehow converting them to "grades." It is not a good idea to think of rubrics in terms of percentages (Trice, 2000). For example, if a rubric has six levels (or "points"), a score of 3 should not be equated to 50% (an "F" in most letter grading systems). The process of converting rubric scores to grades or categories is more a process of logic than it is a mathematical one. Trice (2000) suggests that in a rubric scoring system, there are typically more scores at the average and above average categories (i.e., equating to grades of "C" or better) than there are below average categories. For instance, if a rubric consisted of nine score categories, the equivalent grades and categories might look like this:

Table 3:
Sample grades and categories

Rubric Score

Grade

Category

8

A+

Excellent

7

A

Excellent

6

B+

Good

5

B

Good

4

C+

Fair

3

C

Fair

2

U

Unsatisfactory

1

U

Unsatisfactory

0

U

Unsatisfactory

 

When converting rubric scores to grades (typical at the secondary level) or descriptive feedback (typical at the elementary level), it is important to remember that there is not necessarily one correct way to accomplish this. The bottom line for classroom teachers is that they must find a system of conversion that works for them and fits comfortably into their individual system of reporting student performance.

Steps in the Design of Scoring Rubrics

A step-by-step process for designing scoring rubrics for classroom use is presented below. Information for these procedures was compiled from various sources (Airasian, 2000 & 2001; Mertler, 2001; Montgomery, 2001; Nitko, 2001; Tombari & Borich, 1999). The steps will be summarized and discussed, followed by presentations of two sample scoring rubrics.

Step 1: 

Re-examine the learning objectives to be addressed by the task. This allows you to match your scoring guide with your objectives and actual instruction.

Step 2:  Identify specific observable attributes that you want to see (as well as those you dont want to see) your students demonstrate in their product, process, or performance. Specify the characteristics, skills, or behaviors that you will be looking for, as well as common mistakes you do not want to see.
Step 3:  Brainstorm characteristics that describe each attribute. Identify ways to describe above average, average, and below average performance for each observable attribute identified in Step 2.
Step 4a:  For holistic rubrics, write thorough narrative descriptions for excellent work and poor work incorporating each attribute into the description. Describe the highest and lowest levels of performance combining the descriptors for all attributes.
Step 4b:  For analytic rubrics, write thorough narrative descriptions for excellent work and poor work for each individual attribute. Describe the highest and lowest levels of performance using the descriptors for each attribute separately.
Step 5a:  For holistic rubrics, complete the rubric by describing other levels on the continuum that ranges from excellent to poor work for the collective attributes. Write descriptions for all intermediate levels of performance.
Step 5b:  For analytic rubrics, complete the rubric by describing other levels on the continuum that ranges from excellent to poor work for each attribute. Write descriptions for all intermediate levels of performance for each attribute separately.
Step 6: Collect samples of student work that exemplify each level. These will help you score in the future by serving as benchmarks.
Step 7:  Revise the rubric, as necessary. Be prepared to reflect on the effectiveness of the rubric and revise it prior to its next implementation.

 

These steps involved in the design of rubrics have been summarized in Figure 2.

Figure 2:
Designing Scoring Rubrics: Step-by-step procedures

 

 

Two Examples

Two sample scoring rubrics corresponding to specific performance assessment tasks are presented next. Brief discussions precede the actual rubrics. For illustrative purposes, a holistic rubric is presented for the first task and an analytic rubric for the second. It should be noted that either a holistic or an analytic rubric could have been designed for either task.

Example 1: 
Subject - Mathematics 
Grade Level(s) - Upper Elementary

Mr. Harris, a fourth-grade teacher, is planning a unit on the topic of data analysis, focusing primarily on the skills of estimation and interpretation of graphs. Specifically, at the end of this unit, he wants to be able to assess his students' mastery of the following instructional objectives:

  • Students will properly interpret a bar graph.
  • Students will accurately estimate values from within a bar graph. (step 1)

Since the purpose of his performance task is summative in nature - the results will be incorporated into the students' grades, he decides to develop a holistic rubric. He identifies the following four attributes on which to focus his rubric: estimation, mathematical computation, conclusions, and communication of explanations (steps 2 & 3). Finally, he begins drafting descriptions of the various levels of performance for the observable attributes (steps 4 & 5). The final rubric for his task appears in Table 4.

 

Table 4:
Math Performance Task Scoring Rubric
Data Analysis

Name _____________________________  Date ___________
Score Description
4 Makes accurate estimations. Uses appropriate mathematical operations with no mistakes. Draws logical conclusions supported by graph. Sound explanations of thinking.
3 Makes good estimations. Uses appropriate mathematical operations with few mistakes. Draws logical conclusions supported by graph. Good explanations of thinking.
2 Attempts estimations, although many inaccurate. Uses inappropriate mathematical operations, but with no mistakes. Draws conclusions not supported by graph. Offers little explanation.
1 Makes inaccurate estimations. Uses inappropriate mathematical operations. Draws no conclusions related to graph. Offers no explanations of thinking.
0 No response/task not attempted.

Craig A. Mertler
Bowling Green State University

Rubrics are rating scales-as opposed to checklists-that are used with performance assessments. They are formally defined as scoring guides, consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessments. Rubrics are typically the specific form of scoring instrument used when evaluating student performances or products resulting from a performance task.

There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytic (see Figure 1). A holistic rubric requires the teacher to score the overall process or product as a whole, without judging the component parts separately (Nitko, 2001). In contrast, with an analytic rubric, the teacher scores separate, individual parts of the product or performance first, then sums the individual scores to obtain a total score (Moskal, 2000; Nitko, 2001).

Figure 1: 
Types of scoring instruments for performance assessments

Holistic rubrics are customarily utilized when errors in some part of the process can be tolerated provided the overall quality is high (Chase, 1999). Nitko (2001) further states that use of holistic rubrics is probably more appropriate when performance tasks require students to create some sort of response and where there is no definitive correct answer. The focus of a score reported using a holistic rubric is on the overall quality, proficiency, or understanding of the specific content and skills-it involves assessment on a unidimensional level (Mertler, 2001). Use of holistic rubrics can result in a somewhat quicker scoring process than use of analytic rubrics (Nitko, 2001). This is basically due to the fact that the teacher is required to read through or otherwise examine the student product or performance only once, in order to get an "overall" sense of what the student was able to accomplish (Mertler, 2001). Since assessment of the overall performance is the key, holistic rubrics are also typically, though not exclusively, used when the purpose of the performance assessment is summative in nature. At most, only limited feedback is provided to the student as a result of scoring performance tasks in this manner. A template for holistic scoring rubrics is presented in Table 1.

Table 1:
Template for Holistic Rubrics
Score Description
5 Demonstrates complete understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included in response.
4 Demonstrates considerable understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included.
3  Demonstrates partial understanding of the problem. Most requirements of task are included.
2 Demonstrates little understanding of the problem. Many requirements of task are missing.
1 Demonstrates no understanding of the problem.
0 No response/task not attempted.

Analytic rubrics are usually preferred when a fairly focused type of response is required (Nitko, 2001); that is, for performance tasks in which there may be one or two acceptable responses and creativity is not an essential feature of the students' responses. Furthermore, analytic rubrics result initially in several scores, followed by a summed total score-their use represents assessment on a multidimensional level (Mertler, 2001). As previously mentioned, the use of analytic rubrics can cause the scoring process to be substantially slower, mainly because assessing several different skills or characteristics individually requires a teacher to examine the product several times. Both their construction and use can be quite time-consuming. A general rule of thumb is that an individual's work should be examined a separate time for each of the specific performance tasks or scoring criteria (Mertler, 2001). However, the advantage to the use of analytic rubrics is quite substantial. The degree of feedback offered to students-and to teachers-is significant. Students receive specific feedback on their performance with respect to each of the individual scoring criteria-something that does not happen when using holistic rubrics (Nitko, 2001). It is possible to then create a "profile" of specific student strengths and weaknesses (Mertler, 2001). A template for analytic scoring rubrics is presented in Table 2.

Table 2: 
Template for analytic rubrics
 

Beginning
1

Developing
2

Accomplished
3

Exemplary
4

Score

Criteria #1

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

Criteria #2

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

Criteria #3

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

Criteria #4

Description reflecting beginning level of performance

Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance

Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance

Description reflecting highest level of performance

 

 

Prior to designing a specific rubric, a teacher must decide whether the performance or product will be scored holistically or analytically (Airasian, 2000 & 2001). Regardless of which type of rubric is selected, specific performance criteria and observable indicators must be identified as an initial step to development. The decision regarding the use of a holistic or analytic approach to scoring has several possible implications. The most important of these is that teachers must consider first how they intend to use the results. If an overall, summative score is desired, a holistic scoring approach would be more desirable. In contrast, if formative feedback is the goal, an analytic scoring rubric should be used. It is important to note that one type of rubric is not inherently better than the other-you must find a format that works best for your purposes (Montgomery, 2001). Other implications include the time requirements, the nature of the task itself, and the specific performance criteria being observed. 

As you saw demonstrated in the templates (Tables 1 and 2), the various levels of student performance can be defined using either quantitative (i.e., numerical) or qualitative (i.e., descriptive) labels. In some instances, teachers might want to utilize both quantitative and qualitative labels. If a rubric contains four levels of proficiency or understanding on a continuum, quantitative labels would typically range from "1" to "4." When using qualitative labels, teachers have much more flexibility, and can be more creative. A common type of qualitative scale might include the following labels: master, expert, apprentice, and novice. Nearly any type of qualitative scale will suffice, provided it "fits" with the task. 

One potentially frustrating aspect of scoring student work with rubrics is the issue of somehow converting them to "grades." It is not a good idea to think of rubrics in terms of percentages (Trice, 2000). For example, if a rubric has six levels (or "points"), a score of 3 should not be equated to 50% (an "F" in most letter grading systems). The process of converting rubric scores to grades or categories is more a process of logic than it is a mathematical one. Trice (2000) suggests that in a rubric scoring system, there are typically more scores at the average and above average categories (i.e., equating to grades of "C" or better) than there are below average categories. For instance, if a rubric consisted of nine score categories, the equivalent grades and categories might look like this:

Table 3:
Sample grades and categories

Rubric Score

Grade

Category

8

A+

Excellent

7

A

Excellent

6

B+

Good

5

B

Good

4

C+

Fair

3

C

Fair

2

U

Unsatisfactory

1

U

Unsatisfactory

0

U

Unsatisfactory

 

When converting rubric scores to grades (typical at the secondary level) or descriptive feedback (typical at the elementary level), it is important to remember that there is not necessarily one correct way to accomplish this. The bottom line for classroom teachers is that they must find a system of conversion that works for them and fits comfortably into their individual system of reporting student performance.

Steps in the Design of Scoring Rubrics

A step-by-step process for designing scoring rubrics for classroom use is presented below. Information for these procedures was compiled from various sources (Airasian, 2000 & 2001; Mertler, 2001; Montgomery, 2001; Nitko, 2001; Tombari & Borich, 1999). The steps will be summarized and discussed, followed by presentations of two sample scoring rubrics.

Step 1: 

Re-examine the learning objectives to be addressed by the task. This allows you to match your scoring guide with your objectives and actual instruction.

Step 2:  Identify specific observable attributes that you want to see (as well as those you dont want to see) your students demonstrate in their product, process, or performance. Specify the characteristics, skills, or behaviors that you will be looking for, as well as common mistakes you do not want to see.
Step 3:  Brainstorm characteristics that describe each attribute. Identify ways to describe above average, average, and below average performance for each observable attribute identified in Step 2.
Step 4a:  For holistic rubrics, write thorough narrative descriptions for excellent work and poor work incorporating each attribute into the description. Describe the highest and lowest levels of performance combining the descriptors for all attributes.
Step 4b:  For analytic rubrics, write thorough narrative descriptions for excellent work and poor work for each individual attribute. Describe the highest and lowest levels of performance using the descriptors for each attribute separately.
Step 5a:  For holistic rubrics, complete the rubric by describing other levels on the continuum that ranges from excellent to poor work for the collective attributes. Write descriptions for all intermediate levels of performance.
Step 5b:  For analytic rubrics, complete the rubric by describing other levels on the continuum that ranges from excellent to poor work for each attribute. Write descriptions for all intermediate levels of performance for each attribute separately.
Step 6: Collect samples of student work that exemplify each level. These will help you score in the future by serving as benchmarks.
Step 7:  Revise the rubric, as necessary. Be prepared to reflect on the effectiveness of the rubric and revise it prior to its next implementation.

 

These steps involved in the design of rubrics have been summarized in Figure 2.

Figure 2:
Designing Scoring Rubrics: Step-by-step procedures

 

 

Two Examples

Two sample scoring rubrics corresponding to specific performance assessment tasks are presented next. Brief discussions precede the actual rubrics. For illustrative purposes, a holistic rubric is presented for the first task and an analytic rubric for the second. It should be noted that either a holistic or an analytic rubric could have been designed for either task.

Example 1: 
Subject - Mathematics 
Grade Level(s) - Upper Elementary

Mr. Harris, a fourth-grade teacher, is planning a unit on the topic of data analysis, focusing primarily on the skills of estimation and interpretation of graphs. Specifically, at the end of this unit, he wants to be able to assess his students' mastery of the following instructional objectives:

  • Students will properly interpret a bar graph.
  • Students will accurately estimate values from within a bar graph. (step 1)

Since the purpose of his performance task is summative in nature - the results will be incorporated into the students' grades, he decides to develop a holistic rubric. He identifies the following four attributes on which to focus his rubric: estimation, mathematical computation, conclusions, and communication of explanations (steps 2 & 3). Finally, he begins drafting descriptions of the various levels of performance for the observable attributes (steps 4 & 5). The final rubric for his task appears in Table 4.

 

Table 4:
Math Performance Task Scoring Rubric
Data Analysis

Name _____________________________  Date ___________
Score Description
4 Makes accurate estimations. Uses appropriate mathematical operations with no mistakes. Draws logical conclusions supported by graph. Sound explanations of thinking.
3 Makes good estimations. Uses appropriate mathematical operations with few mistakes. Draws logical conclusions supported by graph. Good explanations of thinking.
2 Attempts estimations, although many inaccurate. Uses inappropriate mathematical operations, but with no mistakes. Draws conclusions not supported by graph. Offers little explanation.
1 Makes inaccurate estimations. Uses inappropriate mathematical operations. Draws no conclusions related to graph. Offers no explanations of thinking.
0 No response/task not attempted.

Diapositiva 1

Fichero: Rubrica_Herramienta_Evaluacion_Pilar_Gil.pdf Tamaño: 891.4 KB Autor: Pilar

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  1. Professional Development | Grades   K – 8  |  Professional Library  |  Book
    Setting the Stage for Creative Writing: Plot Scaffolds for Beginning and Intermediate Writers
    Want to foster creativity and originality in student writing? This practical guide shows how plot scaffolds can be used to help beginning and intermediate writers.
  2. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 8  |  Lesson Plan  |  Unit
    Lights, Camera, Action: Interviewing a Book Character
    Students get the inside scoop on a story when they create interview questions and answers for characters in the books they read.
  3. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 12  |  Printout  |  Assessment Tool
    Persuasion Rubric
    Use this rubric to assess the effectiveness of a student’s essay, speech, poster, or any type of assignment that incorporates persuasion.
  4. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 12  |  Printout  |  Assessment Tool
    Essay Rubric
    This rubric delineates specific expectations about an essay assignment to students and provides a means of assessing completed student essays.
  5. Classroom Resources | Grades   3 – 12  |  Printout  |  Assessment Tool
    Compare and Contrast Rubric
    Students and teachers can use this rubric when doing writing that compares and contrasts two things, as well as when assessing the writing.
  6. Classroom Resources | Grades   9 – 12  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    A Biography Study: Using Role-Play to Explore Authors' Lives
    Students read biographies and explore websites of selected American authors and then role-play as the authors.
  7. Classroom Resources | Grades   9 – 12  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    Word Maps: Developing Critical and Analytical Thinking About Literary Characters
    Students read "After Twenty Years" by O. Henry, use a word map to identify characters' qualities or traits, discuss the characters' feelings and actions, and reflect upon these in journals.
  8. Classroom Resources | Grades   4 – 5  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    Vote for Me! Developing, Writing, and Evaluating Persuasive Speeches
    This lesson encourages students in grades 4 and 5 to think critically and write persuasively by focusing on preparing, presenting, and evaluating mock campaign speeches.
  9. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 8  |  Lesson Plan  |  Unit
    Literary Characters on Trial: Combining Persuasion and Literary Analysis
    Students stage a mock trial for a literary character, with groups of students acting as the prosecution, defense, and jury.
  10. Classroom Resources | Grades   4 – 7  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    Story Writing from an Object's Perspective
    Students explore writing from non-human perspectives through a picture book read aloud, mini-lesson, collaborative writing, and the writing process. Students create “A Day in the Life of…” story about an inanimate object.

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ReadWriteThinkInternational Reading AssociationNCTE

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  1. Professional Development | Grades   K – 8  |  Professional Library  |  Book
    Setting the Stage for Creative Writing: Plot Scaffolds for Beginning and Intermediate Writers
    Want to foster creativity and originality in student writing? This practical guide shows how plot scaffolds can be used to help beginning and intermediate writers.
  2. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 8  |  Lesson Plan  |  Unit
    Lights, Camera, Action: Interviewing a Book Character
    Students get the inside scoop on a story when they create interview questions and answers for characters in the books they read.
  3. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 12  |  Printout  |  Assessment Tool
    Persuasion Rubric
    Use this rubric to assess the effectiveness of a student’s essay, speech, poster, or any type of assignment that incorporates persuasion.
  4. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 12  |  Printout  |  Assessment Tool
    Essay Rubric
    This rubric delineates specific expectations about an essay assignment to students and provides a means of assessing completed student essays.
  5. Classroom Resources | Grades   3 – 12  |  Printout  |  Assessment Tool
    Compare and Contrast Rubric
    Students and teachers can use this rubric when doing writing that compares and contrasts two things, as well as when assessing the writing.
  6. Classroom Resources | Grades   9 – 12  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    A Biography Study: Using Role-Play to Explore Authors' Lives
    Students read biographies and explore websites of selected American authors and then role-play as the authors.
  7. Classroom Resources | Grades   9 – 12  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    Word Maps: Developing Critical and Analytical Thinking About Literary Characters
    Students read "After Twenty Years" by O. Henry, use a word map to identify characters' qualities or traits, discuss the characters' feelings and actions, and reflect upon these in journals.
  8. Classroom Resources | Grades   4 – 5  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    Vote for Me! Developing, Writing, and Evaluating Persuasive Speeches
    This lesson encourages students in grades 4 and 5 to think critically and write persuasively by focusing on preparing, presenting, and evaluating mock campaign speeches.
  9. Classroom Resources | Grades   6 – 8  |  Lesson Plan  |  Unit
    Literary Characters on Trial: Combining Persuasion and Literary Analysis
    Students stage a mock trial for a literary character, with groups of students acting as the prosecution, defense, and jury.
  10. Classroom Resources | Grades   4 – 7  |  Lesson Plan  |  Standard Lesson
    Story Writing from an Object's Perspective
    Students explore writing from non-human perspectives through a picture book read aloud, mini-lesson, collaborative writing, and the writing process. Students create “A Day in the Life of…” story about an inanimate object.

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Collaboration Rubric

Beginning
1
Developing
2
Accomplished
3
Exemplary
4
Score Contribute Research & Gather Information Does not collect any information that relates to the topic. Collects very little information--some relates to the topic. Collects some basic information--most relates to the topic. Collects a great deal of information--all relates to the topic. Share Information Does not relay any information to teammates. Relays very little information--some relates to the topic. Relays some basic information--most relates to the topic. Relays a great deal of information--all relates to the topic. Be Punctual Does not hand in any assignments. Hands in most assignments late. Hands in most assignments on time. Hands in all assignments on time. Take Responsibility Fulfill Team Role's Duties Does not perform any duties of assigned team role. Performs very little duties. Performs nearly all duties. Performs all duties of assigned team role. Share Equally Always relys on others to do the work. Rarely does the assigned work--often needs reminding. Usually does the assigned work--rarely needs reminding. Always does the assigned work without having to be reminded. Value Others' Viewpoints Listen to Other Teammates Is always talking--never allows anyone else to speak. Usually doing most of the talking--rarely allows others to speak. Listens, but sometimes talks too much. Listens and speaks a fair amount. Cooperate with Teammates Usually argues with teammates. Sometimes argues. Rarely argues. Never argues with teammates. Make Fair Decisions Usually wants to have things their way. Often sides with friends instead of considering all views. Usually considers all views. Always helps team to reach a fair decision. Total
Beginning
1
Developing
2
Accomplished
3
Exemplary
4
Score Contribute Research & Gather Information Does not collect any information that relates to the topic. Collects very little information--some relates to the topic. Collects some basic information--most relates to the topic. Collects a great deal of information--all relates to the topic. Share Information Does not relay any information to teammates. Relays very little information--some relates to the topic. Relays some basic information--most relates to the topic. Relays a great deal of information--all relates to the topic. Be Punctual Does not hand in any assignments. Hands in most assignments late. Hands in most assignments on time. Hands in all assignments on time. Take Responsibility Fulfill Team Role's Duties Does not perform any duties of assigned team role. Performs very little duties. Performs nearly all duties. Performs all duties of assigned team role. Share Equally Always relys on others to do the work. Rarely does the assigned work--often needs reminding. Usually does the assigned work--rarely needs reminding. Always does the assigned work without having to be reminded. Value Others' Viewpoints Listen to Other Teammates Is always talking--never allows anyone else to speak. Usually doing most of the talking--rarely allows others to speak. Listens, but sometimes talks too much. Listens and speaks a fair amount. Cooperate with Teammates Usually argues with teammates. Sometimes argues. Rarely argues. Never argues with teammates. Make Fair Decisions Usually wants to have things their way. Often sides with friends instead of considering all views. Usually considers all views. Always helps team to reach a fair decision. Total

Enriquint l’avaluació amb Rúbriques | Quadern - Angel Solans

L’avaluació és una de les activitats més delicades de l’ofici de professor i un dels puntals de l’èxit en la feina d’ensenyar. Això és indiscutible. Una bona avaluació orienta correctament els alumnes, els tranquilitza i els ajuda a entendre allò que el professor demana. També serveix al professor: l’obliga a replantejar-se què ha d’ensenyar i com ho ha de fer. Segurament el disciplina en el treball quotidià i li enriqueix el discurs i el mètode.

examenGeneralment, els professors ens sentim força còmodes planificant examens. Muntem exercicis on una pregunta, que és reflex d’una competència o un contingut, es valorada en funció de la qualitat de la resposta de l’alumne. Fins aquí raonablement senzill, tradicional i segur. La cosa es complica quan encarreguem als nostres alumnes tasques que ensinistren de forma poc clara habilitats diferents. Com hem d’avaluar un debat de classe, un mural, un informe de laboratori o un assaig escrit? De vegades eludim aquesta complexitat tirant pel camí del mig i en simplifiquem el procés; posem una nota a l’engrós que valora l’activitat en conjunt o posem un ‘positiu’ si la feina ens ha agradat sense donar oportunitat a l’alumne de descobrir què ha fet bé i què no. Com tampoc no ens sentim massa segurs ni satisfets amb aquesta avaluació de baix compromís, a l’hora de qualificar la matèria ens refugiem en les estratègies convencionals: el què compta per la nota de trimestre són els exàmens, la resta pot acabar esdevenint un complement vaporós d’importància secundària. Els estudiants, per la seva banda, perceben immediatament el model d’avaluació dels seus professors i s’adapten. Si un adolescent observa, per exemple, que el seu professor en el fons no es preocupa per avaluar la riquesa oral en la seva exposició a la classe, tampoc es preocuparà massa en concentrar-se i arrodonir aquesta habilitat o si veu que un treball escrit s’avalua només pel document lliurat, només li interessarà generar un treball amb bon aspecte, ni que sigui copiat.

Les rúbriques són instruments que poden ajudar el professor a orientar l’avaluació d’activitats complexes. Formen part de la tradició educativa anglosaxona i, a poc a poc, es van consolidant al nostre país. La rúbrica és un document senzill, organitzat en forma de taula. A les files es llisten totes les competències en què es pot desglossar una activitat. Les columnes indiquen la gradació en la qualitat amb que es poden resoldre aquestes competències, de molt malament a molt bé, o a l’inrevés:

rubrica

Les cel·les es van omplint amb la descripció detallada de la competència que s’assoleix en cadascun dels esglaons. Per exemple, imaginem que volem fer una rúbrica per avaluar un informe de laboratori. Hem identificat les competències exposades i les hem escrit a les files de la taula. Decidim que una de les habilitats que volem avaluar són els dibuixos i diagrames del treball. La fila "Dibuixos i diagrames" es pot esglaonar així:

Expert Avançat Aprenent Deficient
S’han inclòs diagrames de qualitat que aclareixen la comprensió de l’experiment. Tots els diagrames estan ben etiquetats i estan situats amb precisió en el lloc corresponent. S’inclouen diagrames ben etiquetats i ben situats. S’inclouen diagrames ben etiquetats.. Falten diagrames importants o no estan ben etiquetats

A través d’aquesta escala s’avalua la presència de diagrames al treball, la seva pertinença, la seva colocació i el seu etiquetat.

La rúbrica és, doncs, un document que delimita el que és avaluable i ho concreta en nivells d’eficiència. Des d’aquest punt de vista és un instrument útil per a l’equip de professors perquè

  • Supera en detall a l’avaluació amb un número o una lletra.
  • Obliga a analitzar els components didàctics de les tasques que fan els estudiants.
  • Ajuda a consolidar el protagonisme a situacions d’avaluació més motivadores pels alumnes.
  • La pròpia tasca de confecció de les rúbriques pot portar l’equip de professors a una profitosa discussió sobre allò que s’ha d’avaluar dels alumnes, com s’ha de valorar i quin graus d’eficiència es poden observar.
  • La rúbrica també pot ser útil a l’estudiant. Si és senzilla, comprensible i en coneix el contingut o, fins i tot en els casos més excel·lents, si ha pogut participar en la seva elaboració.

Com tot instrument, les rúbriques no són ‘la solució’ a les necessitats d’avaluació, també tenen el seu costat fosc:

  • Una mala rúbrica és desmotivadora pel professor i pels alumnes. Si les habilitats no estan ben definides o l’esglaonament és massa ambigu, el document es gira en contra l’avaluador i pot crear més confusió que servei ens fa.
  • He pogut observar que les rúbriques provoquen el rebuig inicial d’alguns professors, especialment els que van haver de patir l’hiperformalisme de les programacions als primers temps de la LOGSE.
  • Les rúbriques no treuen feina al professor. Avaluar cadascun dels ítems d’aquestes fitxes per a cadascun dels estudiants de la classe pot demanar tan o més temps que l’elaboració i correcció d’examens convencionals i molt més temps que la correcció a l’engrós d’un treball escolar.

La rúbrica és, en definitiva, una forma més d’avaluar, potser més potent i subtil que altres instruments convencionals. Buscar-li un lloc al nostre sistema d’avaluació, redactar-ne alguna i discutir-la amb els companys de Departament o d’Equip Docent pot ser, segurament, una bona manera de millorar la nostra qualitat de treball.

Documentació:

http://www.eduteka.org/MatrizValoracion.php3 (Descripció de la metodologia de les rúbriques, en castellà. Hi ha exemples de rúbriques)

Creating Rubrics (Article sobre la creació de rúbriques)

http://www.rubrics4teachers.com/ (Diferents models de rúbriques, en anglès).

http://webquest.sdsu.edu/rubrics/weblessons.htm (Lloc sobre recursos per a pensar i fer rúbriques)

http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php (Generador de rúbriques en línia. Disponible en castellà)

http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/ (Generador de rúbriques en línia. En anglès i de pagament)

Proposta de Rúbrica per a Blocs d’Anibal de la Torre

http://www.rubrics.com/ (Web de rubricator, programa de generació de rúbriques)

http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us/Assessments/Ideas_an… (Banc de rúbriques)

http://www.ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html (Recursos de rúbrica, en anglès)

L’avaluació és una de les activitats més delicades de l’ofici de professor i un dels puntals de l’èxit en la feina d’ensenyar. Això és indiscutible. Una bona avaluació orienta correctament els alumnes, els tranquilitza i els ajuda a entendre allò que el professor demana. També serveix al professor: l’obliga a replantejar-se què ha d’ensenyar i com ho ha de fer. Segurament el disciplina en el treball quotidià i li enriqueix el discurs i el mètode.

examenGeneralment, els professors ens sentim força còmodes planificant examens. Muntem exercicis on una pregunta, que és reflex d’una competència o un contingut, es valorada en funció de la qualitat de la resposta de l’alumne. Fins aquí raonablement senzill, tradicional i segur. La cosa es complica quan encarreguem als nostres alumnes tasques que ensinistren de forma poc clara habilitats diferents. Com hem d’avaluar un debat de classe, un mural, un informe de laboratori o un assaig escrit? De vegades eludim aquesta complexitat tirant pel camí del mig i en simplifiquem el procés; posem una nota a l’engrós que valora l’activitat en conjunt o posem un ‘positiu’ si la feina ens ha agradat sense donar oportunitat a l’alumne de descobrir què ha fet bé i què no. Com tampoc no ens sentim massa segurs ni satisfets amb aquesta avaluació de baix compromís, a l’hora de qualificar la matèria ens refugiem en les estratègies convencionals: el què compta per la nota de trimestre són els exàmens, la resta pot acabar esdevenint un complement vaporós d’importància secundària. Els estudiants, per la seva banda, perceben immediatament el model d’avaluació dels seus professors i s’adapten. Si un adolescent observa, per exemple, que el seu professor en el fons no es preocupa per avaluar la riquesa oral en la seva exposició a la classe, tampoc es preocuparà massa en concentrar-se i arrodonir aquesta habilitat o si veu que un treball escrit s’avalua només pel document lliurat, només li interessarà generar un treball amb bon aspecte, ni que sigui copiat.

Les rúbriques són instruments que poden ajudar el professor a orientar l’avaluació d’activitats complexes. Formen part de la tradició educativa anglosaxona i, a poc a poc, es van consolidant al nostre país. La rúbrica és un document senzill, organitzat en forma de taula. A les files es llisten totes les competències en què es pot desglossar una activitat. Les columnes indiquen la gradació en la qualitat amb que es poden resoldre aquestes competències, de molt malament a molt bé, o a l’inrevés:

rubrica

Les cel·les es van omplint amb la descripció detallada de la competència que s’assoleix en cadascun dels esglaons. Per exemple, imaginem que volem fer una rúbrica per avaluar un informe de laboratori. Hem identificat les competències exposades i les hem escrit a les files de la taula. Decidim que una de les habilitats que volem avaluar són els dibuixos i diagrames del treball. La fila "Dibuixos i diagrames" es pot esglaonar així:

Expert Avançat Aprenent Deficient
S’han inclòs diagrames de qualitat que aclareixen la comprensió de l’experiment. Tots els diagrames estan ben etiquetats i estan situats amb precisió en el lloc corresponent. S’inclouen diagrames ben etiquetats i ben situats. S’inclouen diagrames ben etiquetats.. Falten diagrames importants o no estan ben etiquetats

A través d’aquesta escala s’avalua la presència de diagrames al treball, la seva pertinença, la seva colocació i el seu etiquetat.

La rúbrica és, doncs, un document que delimita el que és avaluable i ho concreta en nivells d’eficiència. Des d’aquest punt de vista és un instrument útil per a l’equip de professors perquè

  • Supera en detall a l’avaluació amb un número o una lletra.
  • Obliga a analitzar els components didàctics de les tasques que fan els estudiants.
  • Ajuda a consolidar el protagonisme a situacions d’avaluació més motivadores pels alumnes.
  • La pròpia tasca de confecció de les rúbriques pot portar l’equip de professors a una profitosa discussió sobre allò que s’ha d’avaluar dels alumnes, com s’ha de valorar i quin graus d’eficiència es poden observar.
  • La rúbrica també pot ser útil a l’estudiant. Si és senzilla, comprensible i en coneix el contingut o, fins i tot en els casos més excel·lents, si ha pogut participar en la seva elaboració.

Com tot instrument, les rúbriques no són ‘la solució’ a les necessitats d’avaluació, també tenen el seu costat fosc:

  • Una mala rúbrica és desmotivadora pel professor i pels alumnes. Si les habilitats no estan ben definides o l’esglaonament és massa ambigu, el document es gira en contra l’avaluador i pot crear més confusió que servei ens fa.
  • He pogut observar que les rúbriques provoquen el rebuig inicial d’alguns professors, especialment els que van haver de patir l’hiperformalisme de les programacions als primers temps de la LOGSE.
  • Les rúbriques no treuen feina al professor. Avaluar cadascun dels ítems d’aquestes fitxes per a cadascun dels estudiants de la classe pot demanar tan o més temps que l’elaboració i correcció d’examens convencionals i molt més temps que la correcció a l’engrós d’un treball escolar.

La rúbrica és, en definitiva, una forma més d’avaluar, potser més potent i subtil que altres instruments convencionals. Buscar-li un lloc al nostre sistema d’avaluació, redactar-ne alguna i discutir-la amb els companys de Departament o d’Equip Docent pot ser, segurament, una bona manera de millorar la nostra qualitat de treball.

Documentació:

http://www.eduteka.org/MatrizValoracion.php3 (Descripció de la metodologia de les rúbriques, en castellà. Hi ha exemples de rúbriques)

Creating Rubrics (Article sobre la creació de rúbriques)

http://www.rubrics4teachers.com/ (Diferents models de rúbriques, en anglès).

http://webquest.sdsu.edu/rubrics/weblessons.htm (Lloc sobre recursos per a pensar i fer rúbriques)

http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php (Generador de rúbriques en línia. Disponible en castellà)

http://www.teach-nology.com/web_tools/rubrics/ (Generador de rúbriques en línia. En anglès i de pagament)

Proposta de Rúbrica per a Blocs d’Anibal de la Torre

http://www.rubrics.com/ (Web de rubricator, programa de generació de rúbriques)

http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us/Assessments/Ideas_an… (Banc de rúbriques)

http://www.ncsu.edu/midlink/ho.html (Recursos de rúbrica, en anglès)

Eduteka - Matriz de Valoración (Rúbricas - Rubrics en inglés)

MATRIZ DE VALORACIÓN
Rúbricas - Rubric en inglés


IDEAS BASICAS

Una Matriz de Valoración (Rúbrica - Rubric en inglés [1]) facilita la Calificación del desempeño del estudiante en las áreas del currículo (materias o temas) que son complejas, imprecisas y subjetivas. Esta Matriz podría explicarse como un listado del conjunto de criterios específicos y fundamentales que permiten valorar el aprendizaje, los conocimientos y/o las competencias, logrados por el estudiante en un trabajo o materia particular.

Con ese fin establece una gradación (niveles) de la calidad de los diferentes criterios con los que se puede desarrollar un objetivo, una competencia, un contenido o cualquier otro tipo de tarea que se lleve a cabo en el proceso de aprendizaje.

Generalmente se diseña de manera que el estudiante pueda ser evaluado en forma "objetiva" y consistente. Al mismo tiempo permite al profesor especificar claramente qué espera del estudiante y cuáles son los criterios con los que se van a calificar un objetivo previamente establecido, un trabajo, una presentación o un reporte escrito, de acuerdo con el tipo de actividad que desarrolle con los alumnos.

En el nuevo paradigma de la educación las Matrices de Valoración se están utilizando para darle un valor más auténtico o real, a las calificaciones tradicionales expresadas en números o letras.

De acuerdo pues con lo anteriormente expuesto, una Matriz de Valoración sirve para averiguar cómo está aprendiendo el estudiante, y en ese sentido se puede considerar como una herramienta de evaluación formativa, cuando se convierte en parte integral del proceso de aprendizaje. Esto se logra en las siguientes situaciones: cuando a los estudiantes se les involucra en el proceso de evaluación de su propio trabajo (auto evaluación), del trabajo de sus compañeros o cuando el estudiante, familiarizado ya con la Matriz de Valoración, participa en su diseño.

Si partimos de la premisa de que la evaluación tiene como propósito fundamental proporcionar información sobre los distintos momentos del aprendizaje del estudiante, esta herramienta ofrece ventajas claras como son:

  • Es poderosa para el maestro y para evaluar
  • Promueve expectativas sanas de aprendizaje pues clarifica cuáles son los objetivos del maestro y de qué manera pueden alcanzarlos los estudiantes
  • Enfoca al maestro para que determine de manera específica los criterios con los cuales va a medir y documentar el progreso del estudiante
  • Permite al maestro describir cualitativamente los distintos niveles de logro que el estudiante debe alcanzar
  • Permite que los estudiantes conozcan los criterios de calificación con que serán evaluados
  • Aclara al estudiante cuales son los criterios que debe utilizar al evaluar su trabajo y el de sus compañeros
  • Permite que el estudiante evalúe y haga una revisión final a sus trabajo, antes de entregarlo al profesor.
  • Indica con claridad al estudiante las áreas en las que tiene falencias y con éste conocimiento planear con el maestro los correctivos a aplicar
  • Provee al maestro información de retorno sobre la efectividad del proceso de enseñanza que está utilizando
  • Proporciona a los estudiantes retro alimentación sobre sus fortalezas y debilidades en las áreas que deben mejorar
  • Reduce la subjetividad en la evaluación
  • Promueve la responsabilidad
  • Ayuda a mantener el o los logros del objetivo de aprendizaje centrado en los estándares de desempeño establecidos y en el trabajo del estudiante.
  • Proporciona criterios específicos para medir y documentar el progreso del estudiante
  • Es fácil de utilizar y de explicar

Puede hablarse de dos tipos de Matrices de Valoración, la Comprehensiva (total) y la Analítica.

En la Comprehensiva el profesor evalúa la totalidad del proceso o producto sin juzgar por separado las partes que lo componen. En contraposición, con la Matriz de Valoración Analítica el profesor evalúa inicialmente, por separado, las diferentes partes del producto o desempeño y luego suma el puntaje de estas para obtener una calificación total (Moskal, 2000; Nitko, 2001)

Las matrices comprehensivas regularmente se utilizan cuando pueden aceptarse pequeños errores en alguna de las partes del proceso, sin que ellas alteren la buena calidad del producto final. Son más apropiadas cuando las actividades de desempeño requieren que el estudiante produzca una respuesta sin que necesariamente haya una respuesta correcta única. El objetivo de los trabajos o desempeños que en esta forma se califican se centran en la calidad, dominio o comprensión generales tanto del contenido específico como de las habilidades que incluye la evaluación en un proceso unidimensional.

El uso de las Matrices de Valoración Comprehensiva para calificar, puede resultar en un proceso más rápido que utilizar las Matrices Analíticas con el mismo fin. Esto en gran parte se debe a que el maestro debe leer o examinar el producto o desempeño del estudiante una sola vez, con el objeto de tener una idea general de lo que el estudiante pudo lograr. Como en estos casos lo que se busca es la valoración general casi siempre se usan cuando el propósito de la valoración es por su naturaleza sumativo. Con este tipo de valoración muy poca retroalimentación puede darse al estudiante

Ejemplo de Plantilla para Matrices de Valoración Comprehensivas

Calificacin

Descripcin

5

Demuestra total comprensin del problema. Todos los requerimientos de la tarea estn incluidos en la respuesta

4

Demuestra considerable comprensin del problema. Todos los requerimientos de la tarea estn incluidos en la respuesta.

3

Demuestra comprensin parcial del problema. La mayor cantidad de requerimientos de la tarea estn comprendidos en la respuesta.

2

Demuestra poca comprensin del problema. Muchos de los requerimientos de la tarea faltan en la respuesta.

1

No comprende el problema.

0

No responde. No intent hacer la tarea.

Las matrices analíticas se prefieren cuando se solicita en los desempeños una respuesta muy enfocada, esto es, para situaciones en las cuáles hay a lo sumo dos respuestas válidas y la creatividad no es importante en la respuesta. Como se mencionó anteriormente, en este caso el proceso de calificación es más lento, especialmente porque se evalúan individualmente diferentes habilidades o características que requieren que el maestro examine el producto varias veces. Por eso tanto su elaboración como su aplicación requieren tiempo. Cabe destacar eso sí que la ventaja de usar las matrices de valoración analíticas es enorme. La cantidad de retroalimentación que ofrecen para el estudiante y el maestro es muy significativa. Los estudiantes reciben retroalimentación en cada uno de los aspectos o características evaluados , lo que no sucede con el enfoque comprehensivo. Lo anterior hace posible crear un "perfil" de las fortalezas y debilidades específicas de cada estudiante con el fin de establecer un curso de acción para mejorar éstas últimas. Es decir, las matrices de valoración analítica promueven una valoración formativa.

En este artículo nos vamos a concentrar en la exposición de las matrices analíticas.


COMO HACER UNA MATRIZ DE VALORACIÓN.

Existen diversas formas de hacer una Matriz de Valoración; sin embargo, todas incluyen algunas características comunes que son:

  1. Busque un buen Modelo e identifique las características que definen un buen trabajo. Permita que los estudiantes se familiaricen con él.
  2. Revise detalladamente el contenido o unidad que se va a estudiar .
  3. Establezca con claridad dentro de esa área o unidad un (unos) objetivo(s) , desempeño(s), comportamiento(s), competencia(s) o actividad(es) en los que se va a enfocar. Determine cuáles va a evaluar.
  4. Describa lo más claramente posible, los criterios de desempeño específicos que va a utilizar para llevar a cabo la evaluación de esas áreas. Estos deben permitir establecer qué tanto ha aprendido el estudiante del tema que se está trabajando.
  5. Diseñe una escala de calidad para calificarlas, esto es, establezca los niveles de desempeño que puede alcanzar el estudiante. Estos pueden ir por ejemplo, de excelente hasta pobre.
  6. Revise lo que ha plasmado en la matriz para asegurarse de que no le falta nada
  7. Practique el modelo o matriz.

Cuando haya clarificado los pasos anteriores comience a construir la Matriz teniendo en cuenta lo siguiente:

  • Por lo general, la escala de calidad para calificar los diversos aspectos a evaluar, se ubica en la fila horizontal superior, con una gradación que vaya de mejor a peor. Es muy importante que la gradación de esta escala sea obvia y precisa para que haya diferencia en los distintos grados que se pueden lograr en el aprendizaje de un tema propuesto.
  • En la primera columna vertical se ubican los aspectos o elementos que se han seleccionado para evaluar.
  • En las celdas centrales se describe de la forma más clara y concisa posible los criterios que se van a utilizar para evaluar esos aspectos. Recuerde que estas celdas centrales explican cuáles son las características de un trabajo excelente, de uno malo y las variaciones intermedias entre el uno y el otro.

Para terminar lo invitamos a conocer algunos ejemplos de Matrices y a practicar el diseño de sus propias Matrices con Rubistar

CRÉDITOS:

EDUTEKA agradece muy especialmente a los profesores Piedad Gómez, María del Pilar Aguirre, Fernando Posso y Guillermo García; todos ellos del Colegio Bolívar, Cali, Colombia, por la colaboración prestada en la realización de este documento.

REFERENCIAS:

[1] Cuando se busca la traducción al español de la palabra RUBRIC (Rúbrica, huella) esta no tiene ningún significado en el contexto de la educación en el que se va a utilizar. EDUTEKA seguirá refiriéndose al RUBRIC como Matriz de Valoración.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:

Fecha de publicación en EDUTEKA: Julio 27 de 2002.
Fecha de la última actualización: Julio 27 de 2002.

MATRIZ DE VALORACIÓN
Rúbricas - Rubric en inglés


IDEAS BASICAS

Una Matriz de Valoración (Rúbrica - Rubric en inglés [1]) facilita la Calificación del desempeño del estudiante en las áreas del currículo (materias o temas) que son complejas, imprecisas y subjetivas. Esta Matriz podría explicarse como un listado del conjunto de criterios específicos y fundamentales que permiten valorar el aprendizaje, los conocimientos y/o las competencias, logrados por el estudiante en un trabajo o materia particular.

Con ese fin establece una gradación (niveles) de la calidad de los diferentes criterios con los que se puede desarrollar un objetivo, una competencia, un contenido o cualquier otro tipo de tarea que se lleve a cabo en el proceso de aprendizaje.

Generalmente se diseña de manera que el estudiante pueda ser evaluado en forma "objetiva" y consistente. Al mismo tiempo permite al profesor especificar claramente qué espera del estudiante y cuáles son los criterios con los que se van a calificar un objetivo previamente establecido, un trabajo, una presentación o un reporte escrito, de acuerdo con el tipo de actividad que desarrolle con los alumnos.

En el nuevo paradigma de la educación las Matrices de Valoración se están utilizando para darle un valor más auténtico o real, a las calificaciones tradicionales expresadas en números o letras.

De acuerdo pues con lo anteriormente expuesto, una Matriz de Valoración sirve para averiguar cómo está aprendiendo el estudiante, y en ese sentido se puede considerar como una herramienta de evaluación formativa, cuando se convierte en parte integral del proceso de aprendizaje. Esto se logra en las siguientes situaciones: cuando a los estudiantes se les involucra en el proceso de evaluación de su propio trabajo (auto evaluación), del trabajo de sus compañeros o cuando el estudiante, familiarizado ya con la Matriz de Valoración, participa en su diseño.

Si partimos de la premisa de que la evaluación tiene como propósito fundamental proporcionar información sobre los distintos momentos del aprendizaje del estudiante, esta herramienta ofrece ventajas claras como son:

  • Es poderosa para el maestro y para evaluar
  • Promueve expectativas sanas de aprendizaje pues clarifica cuáles son los objetivos del maestro y de qué manera pueden alcanzarlos los estudiantes
  • Enfoca al maestro para que determine de manera específica los criterios con los cuales va a medir y documentar el progreso del estudiante
  • Permite al maestro describir cualitativamente los distintos niveles de logro que el estudiante debe alcanzar
  • Permite que los estudiantes conozcan los criterios de calificación con que serán evaluados
  • Aclara al estudiante cuales son los criterios que debe utilizar al evaluar su trabajo y el de sus compañeros
  • Permite que el estudiante evalúe y haga una revisión final a sus trabajo, antes de entregarlo al profesor.
  • Indica con claridad al estudiante las áreas en las que tiene falencias y con éste conocimiento planear con el maestro los correctivos a aplicar
  • Provee al maestro información de retorno sobre la efectividad del proceso de enseñanza que está utilizando
  • Proporciona a los estudiantes retro alimentación sobre sus fortalezas y debilidades en las áreas que deben mejorar
  • Reduce la subjetividad en la evaluación
  • Promueve la responsabilidad
  • Ayuda a mantener el o los logros del objetivo de aprendizaje centrado en los estándares de desempeño establecidos y en el trabajo del estudiante.
  • Proporciona criterios específicos para medir y documentar el progreso del estudiante
  • Es fácil de utilizar y de explicar

Puede hablarse de dos tipos de Matrices de Valoración, la Comprehensiva (total) y la Analítica.

En la Comprehensiva el profesor evalúa la totalidad del proceso o producto sin juzgar por separado las partes que lo componen. En contraposición, con la Matriz de Valoración Analítica el profesor evalúa inicialmente, por separado, las diferentes partes del producto o desempeño y luego suma el puntaje de estas para obtener una calificación total (Moskal, 2000; Nitko, 2001)

Las matrices comprehensivas regularmente se utilizan cuando pueden aceptarse pequeños errores en alguna de las partes del proceso, sin que ellas alteren la buena calidad del producto final. Son más apropiadas cuando las actividades de desempeño requieren que el estudiante produzca una respuesta sin que necesariamente haya una respuesta correcta única. El objetivo de los trabajos o desempeños que en esta forma se califican se centran en la calidad, dominio o comprensión generales tanto del contenido específico como de las habilidades que incluye la evaluación en un proceso unidimensional.

El uso de las Matrices de Valoración Comprehensiva para calificar, puede resultar en un proceso más rápido que utilizar las Matrices Analíticas con el mismo fin. Esto en gran parte se debe a que el maestro debe leer o examinar el producto o desempeño del estudiante una sola vez, con el objeto de tener una idea general de lo que el estudiante pudo lograr. Como en estos casos lo que se busca es la valoración general casi siempre se usan cuando el propósito de la valoración es por su naturaleza sumativo. Con este tipo de valoración muy poca retroalimentación puede darse al estudiante

Ejemplo de Plantilla para Matrices de Valoración Comprehensivas

Calificacin

Descripcin

5

Demuestra total comprensin del problema. Todos los requerimientos de la tarea estn incluidos en la respuesta

4

Demuestra considerable comprensin del problema. Todos los requerimientos de la tarea estn incluidos en la respuesta.

3

Demuestra comprensin parcial del problema. La mayor cantidad de requerimientos de la tarea estn comprendidos en la respuesta.

2

Demuestra poca comprensin del problema. Muchos de los requerimientos de la tarea faltan en la respuesta.

1

No comprende el problema.

0

No responde. No intent hacer la tarea.

Las matrices analíticas se prefieren cuando se solicita en los desempeños una respuesta muy enfocada, esto es, para situaciones en las cuáles hay a lo sumo dos respuestas válidas y la creatividad no es importante en la respuesta. Como se mencionó anteriormente, en este caso el proceso de calificación es más lento, especialmente porque se evalúan individualmente diferentes habilidades o características que requieren que el maestro examine el producto varias veces. Por eso tanto su elaboración como su aplicación requieren tiempo. Cabe destacar eso sí que la ventaja de usar las matrices de valoración analíticas es enorme. La cantidad de retroalimentación que ofrecen para el estudiante y el maestro es muy significativa. Los estudiantes reciben retroalimentación en cada uno de los aspectos o características evaluados , lo que no sucede con el enfoque comprehensivo. Lo anterior hace posible crear un "perfil" de las fortalezas y debilidades específicas de cada estudiante con el fin de establecer un curso de acción para mejorar éstas últimas. Es decir, las matrices de valoración analítica promueven una valoración formativa.

En este artículo nos vamos a concentrar en la exposición de las matrices analíticas.


COMO HACER UNA MATRIZ DE VALORACIÓN.

Existen diversas formas de hacer una Matriz de Valoración; sin embargo, todas incluyen algunas características comunes que son:

  1. Busque un buen Modelo e identifique las características que definen un buen trabajo. Permita que los estudiantes se familiaricen con él.
  2. Revise detalladamente el contenido o unidad que se va a estudiar .
  3. Establezca con claridad dentro de esa área o unidad un (unos) objetivo(s) , desempeño(s), comportamiento(s), competencia(s) o actividad(es) en los que se va a enfocar. Determine cuáles va a evaluar.
  4. Describa lo más claramente posible, los criterios de desempeño específicos que va a utilizar para llevar a cabo la evaluación de esas áreas. Estos deben permitir establecer qué tanto ha aprendido el estudiante del tema que se está trabajando.
  5. Diseñe una escala de calidad para calificarlas, esto es, establezca los niveles de desempeño que puede alcanzar el estudiante. Estos pueden ir por ejemplo, de excelente hasta pobre.
  6. Revise lo que ha plasmado en la matriz para asegurarse de que no le falta nada
  7. Practique el modelo o matriz.

Cuando haya clarificado los pasos anteriores comience a construir la Matriz teniendo en cuenta lo siguiente:

  • Por lo general, la escala de calidad para calificar los diversos aspectos a evaluar, se ubica en la fila horizontal superior, con una gradación que vaya de mejor a peor. Es muy importante que la gradación de esta escala sea obvia y precisa para que haya diferencia en los distintos grados que se pueden lograr en el aprendizaje de un tema propuesto.
  • En la primera columna vertical se ubican los aspectos o elementos que se han seleccionado para evaluar.
  • En las celdas centrales se describe de la forma más clara y concisa posible los criterios que se van a utilizar para evaluar esos aspectos. Recuerde que estas celdas centrales explican cuáles son las características de un trabajo excelente, de uno malo y las variaciones intermedias entre el uno y el otro.

Para terminar lo invitamos a conocer algunos ejemplos de Matrices y a practicar el diseño de sus propias Matrices con Rubistar

CRÉDITOS:

EDUTEKA agradece muy especialmente a los profesores Piedad Gómez, María del Pilar Aguirre, Fernando Posso y Guillermo García; todos ellos del Colegio Bolívar, Cali, Colombia, por la colaboración prestada en la realización de este documento.

REFERENCIAS:

[1] Cuando se busca la traducción al español de la palabra RUBRIC (Rúbrica, huella) esta no tiene ningún significado en el contexto de la educación en el que se va a utilizar. EDUTEKA seguirá refiriéndose al RUBRIC como Matriz de Valoración.

BIBLIOGRAFÍA:

Fecha de publicación en EDUTEKA: Julio 27 de 2002.
Fecha de la última actualización: Julio 27 de 2002.

Rubrics For Teachers | K-12 Rubrics and Assessment

Rubrics for Web Lessons

Introduction

How often have you attempted to grade your students' work only to find that the assessment criteria were vague and the performance behavior was overly subjective? Would you be able to justify the assessment or grade if you had to defend it? The Rubric is an authentic assessment tool which is particularly useful in assessing criteria which are complex and subjective.

Authentic assessment is geared toward assessment methods which correspond as closely as possible to real world experience. It was originally developed in the arts and apprenticeship systems, where assessment has always been based on performance. The instructor observes the student in the process of working on something real, provides feedback, monitors the student's use of the feedback, and adjusts instruction and evaluation accordingly. Authentic assessment takes this principle of evaluating real work into all areas of the curriculum.

The rubric is one authentic assessment tool which is designed to simulate real life activity where students are engaged in solving real-life problems. It is a formative type of assessment because it becomes an ongoing part of the whole teaching and learning process. Students themselves are involved in the assessment process through both peer and self-assessment. As students become familiar with rubrics, they can assist in the rubric design process. This involvement empowers the students and as a result, their learning becomes more focused and self-directed. Authentic assessment, therefore, blurs the lines between teaching, learning, and assessment.

The advantages of using rubrics in assessment are that they:

  • allow assessment to be more objective and consistent
  • focus the teacher to clarify his/her criteria in specific terms
  • clearly show the student how their work will be evaluated and what is expected
  • promote student awareness of about the criteria to use in assessing peer performance
  • provide useful feedback regarding the effectiveness of the instruction
  • provide benchmarks against which to measure and document progress

Rubrics can be created in a variety of forms and levels of complexity, however, they all contain common features which:

  • focus on measuring a stated objective (performance, behavior, or quality)
  • use a range to rate performance
  • contain specific performance characteristics arranged in levels indicating the degree to which a standard has been met

In this module you will create your own rubric for assessing student performance regarding a given objective. Articles on the Web and some examples of rubrics will focus your effort and stimulate your creativity.

Resources

Study these articles on authentic assessment and the use of rubrics:

The Case for Authentic Assessment ERIC Document ED 328 611

Empowering Students through Negotiable Contracting by Andi Stix, Ed.D. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)

Authentic Assessment Overview - Pearson Education Development Group

Look at the following examples of rubrics:

Use these guidelines to aid you in creating your rubric in the next exercise.

Exercise

After having read articles on authentic assessment and rubric development and having viewed some examples, you will now have the opportunity to design your own rubric. Follow the process below:

  1. Work with a partner to create your rubric.
  2. Select a student performance you would like to evaluate. Here are some suggestions or you may come up with your own.
    • An oral presentation augmented by a HyperStudio stack
    • A web page showing student research results
    • A play
    • A collaborative project to research a topic and produce a video to convey the information.
  3. Download the rubric template.
  4. Fill in the template with your criteria. Be sure to include the objective or behavior (categories), range/level, and the degree to which it has been met. Write specific descriptions of expected student performance for each level.
  5. Share your completed rubric with another group.

For Further Exploration

Want to know more and do more with rubrics? Here are eight resources you'll find useful.

Web Sites

Rona's Ultimate Teacher Tools

This excellent site contains links to scores of example rubrics in a wide range of content areas.


Rubrics: Inspire your Students and Foster Critical Thinking

This five-part series explores how one teacher designs, refines, and implements rubrics in a variety of subject areas.

TeAch-nology's Rubric Generators
Rubistar
ClassWeb Rubric Builder

These three sites take different approaches to helping the user create rubrics online. One of them is bound to be a good fit for your needs.

Software

Rubricator 3.0

by Strategic Learning Technologies

A cross-platform software tool that allows you to store and organize standards and performance descriptions and print out rubrics in a variety of formats.

Books

Rubrics: A Handbook for Construction and Use

by Germaine L. Taggart, Sandra J. Phifer, Judy A. Nixon and Marilyn Wood. Technomic Publishing.

Explains the uses, importance, and techniques of using rubrics in the classroom, based on extensive collaboration between classroom teachers and university faculty in Kansas.

book cover

The Rubrics Way: Using MI to Assess Understanding

by David Lazear. Zephyr Press.

Makes use of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory to provide guidelines and examples of rubrics that measure aspects of all eight intelligences.

Conclusion

Rubrics are an effective assessment tool in evaluating student performance in areas which are complex and vague. By involving students in the creation of the rubric, the students take more responsibility for their own learning, are empowered by being involved in the teaching/learning process, and have a clearer idea of what is expected in terms of specific performance. Stakeholders are given clear information about student assessment and instructional objectives. Teachers clarify their goals, expectations, and focus, and even find that their paperwork is reduced because students are a part of the process of assessment development. There is, however, one drawback to the use of rubrics according to Harry Tuttle, a subject area technology integration teacher for the Ithaca City School District; "the students will want to have rubrics for everything they learn!"


This page by Nancy Pickett and Bernie Dodge

Last updated March 17, 2007

Introduction

How often have you attempted to grade your students' work only to find that the assessment criteria were vague and the performance behavior was overly subjective? Would you be able to justify the assessment or grade if you had to defend it? The Rubric is an authentic assessment tool which is particularly useful in assessing criteria which are complex and subjective.

Authentic assessment is geared toward assessment methods which correspond as closely as possible to real world experience. It was originally developed in the arts and apprenticeship systems, where assessment has always been based on performance. The instructor observes the student in the process of working on something real, provides feedback, monitors the student's use of the feedback, and adjusts instruction and evaluation accordingly. Authentic assessment takes this principle of evaluating real work into all areas of the curriculum.

The rubric is one authentic assessment tool which is designed to simulate real life activity where students are engaged in solving real-life problems. It is a formative type of assessment because it becomes an ongoing part of the whole teaching and learning process. Students themselves are involved in the assessment process through both peer and self-assessment. As students become familiar with rubrics, they can assist in the rubric design process. This involvement empowers the students and as a result, their learning becomes more focused and self-directed. Authentic assessment, therefore, blurs the lines between teaching, learning, and assessment.

The advantages of using rubrics in assessment are that they:

  • allow assessment to be more objective and consistent
  • focus the teacher to clarify his/her criteria in specific terms
  • clearly show the student how their work will be evaluated and what is expected
  • promote student awareness of about the criteria to use in assessing peer performance
  • provide useful feedback regarding the effectiveness of the instruction
  • provide benchmarks against which to measure and document progress

Rubrics can be created in a variety of forms and levels of complexity, however, they all contain common features which:

  • focus on measuring a stated objective (performance, behavior, or quality)
  • use a range to rate performance
  • contain specific performance characteristics arranged in levels indicating the degree to which a standard has been met

In this module you will create your own rubric for assessing student performance regarding a given objective. Articles on the Web and some examples of rubrics will focus your effort and stimulate your creativity.

Resources

Study these articles on authentic assessment and the use of rubrics:

The Case for Authentic Assessment ERIC Document ED 328 611

Empowering Students through Negotiable Contracting by Andi Stix, Ed.D. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)

Authentic Assessment Overview - Pearson Education Development Group

Look at the following examples of rubrics:

Use these guidelines to aid you in creating your rubric in the next exercise.

Exercise

After having read articles on authentic assessment and rubric development and having viewed some examples, you will now have the opportunity to design your own rubric. Follow the process below:

  1. Work with a partner to create your rubric.
  2. Select a student performance you would like to evaluate. Here are some suggestions or you may come up with your own.
    • An oral presentation augmented by a HyperStudio stack
    • A web page showing student research results
    • A play
    • A collaborative project to research a topic and produce a video to convey the information.
  3. Download the rubric template.
  4. Fill in the template with your criteria. Be sure to include the objective or behavior (categories), range/level, and the degree to which it has been met. Write specific descriptions of expected student performance for each level.
  5. Share your completed rubric with another group.

For Further Exploration

Want to know more and do more with rubrics? Here are eight resources you'll find useful.

Web Sites

Rona's Ultimate Teacher Tools

This excellent site contains links to scores of example rubrics in a wide range of content areas.


Rubrics: Inspire your Students and Foster Critical Thinking

This five-part series explores how one teacher designs, refines, and implements rubrics in a variety of subject areas.

TeAch-nology's Rubric Generators
Rubistar
ClassWeb Rubric Builder

These three sites take different approaches to helping the user create rubrics online. One of them is bound to be a good fit for your needs.

Software

Rubricator 3.0

by Strategic Learning Technologies

A cross-platform software tool that allows you to store and organize standards and performance descriptions and print out rubrics in a variety of formats.

Books

Rubrics: A Handbook for Construction and Use

by Germaine L. Taggart, Sandra J. Phifer, Judy A. Nixon and Marilyn Wood. Technomic Publishing.

Explains the uses, importance, and techniques of using rubrics in the classroom, based on extensive collaboration between classroom teachers and university faculty in Kansas.

book cover

The Rubrics Way: Using MI to Assess Understanding

by David Lazear. Zephyr Press.

Makes use of Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory to provide guidelines and examples of rubrics that measure aspects of all eight intelligences.

Conclusion

Rubrics are an effective assessment tool in evaluating student performance in areas which are complex and vague. By involving students in the creation of the rubric, the students take more responsibility for their own learning, are empowered by being involved in the teaching/learning process, and have a clearer idea of what is expected in terms of specific performance. Stakeholders are given clear information about student assessment and instructional objectives. Teachers clarify their goals, expectations, and focus, and even find that their paperwork is reduced because students are a part of the process of assessment development. There is, however, one drawback to the use of rubrics according to Harry Tuttle, a subject area technology integration teacher for the Ithaca City School District; "the students will want to have rubrics for everything they learn!"


This page by Nancy Pickett and Bernie Dodge

Last updated March 17, 2007

RubiStar Home


Welcome to RubiStar!

Want to make exemplary rubrics in a short amount of time? Try RubiStar out! Registered users can save and edit rubrics online. You can access them from home, school, or on the road. Registration and use of this tool is free, so click the Register link in the login area to the right to get started now.

Register
Quick Tour


"; var tap2_content = "

"; var tap3_content = "
2012 CODiE finalist | Integrated with Blackboard Waypoint Outcomes

Extend Rubistar with Waypoint, web-based software from Bridgepoint Education that unites rubrics with document markup so you can provide timely, personalized feedback, save time grading, and gain real-time analytics on student learning. Waypoint integrates seamlessly with Blackboard Learn or can be used as a Stand Alone solution.

Learn more about Waypoint's reinvention of the rubric or get started today!

Read more

"; function mouseOverTap(option) { if(currentTap != option) document.getElementById('tap'+option+'_color').className = 'posterTap_on'; } function mouseOutTap(option) { if(currentTap != option) document.getElementById('tap'+option+'_color').className = 'posterTap_off'; } function changeTap(option) { for(id=1; id
Create a Rubric
Choose a Topic below to create a new rubric based on a template:

Welcome to RubiStar!

Want to make exemplary rubrics in a short amount of time? Try RubiStar out! Registered users can save and edit rubrics online. You can access them from home, school, or on the road. Registration and use of this tool is free, so click the Register link in the login area to the right to get started now.

Register
Quick Tour


"; var tap2_content = "

"; var tap3_content = "
2012 CODiE finalist | Integrated with Blackboard Waypoint Outcomes

Extend Rubistar with Waypoint, web-based software from Bridgepoint Education that unites rubrics with document markup so you can provide timely, personalized feedback, save time grading, and gain real-time analytics on student learning. Waypoint integrates seamlessly with Blackboard Learn or can be used as a Stand Alone solution.

Learn more about Waypoint's reinvention of the rubric or get started today!

Read more

"; function mouseOverTap(option) { if(currentTap != option) document.getElementById('tap'+option+'_color').className = 'posterTap_on'; } function mouseOutTap(option) { if(currentTap != option) document.getElementById('tap'+option+'_color').className = 'posterTap_off'; } function changeTap(option) { for(id=1; id
Create a Rubric
Choose a Topic below to create a new rubric based on a template:

Rubrics

MidLink Magazine
Teacher Tools

Teacher Working

Critical Thinking Skills
   Teaching Resources  
  
Graphic Organizers
       Graphic.Org.Com
  
KWHL
Chart

Rubrics and Handouts
  Rubrics
  Rubric "How To's"
 
Web Page Evaluation

Web Publishing
  Copyright Guidelines
  Web Author Resources
 
Web Toolbox

Web Tips and Tricks
 
Bookmark Management
  Views Web Pages Off-Line

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MidLink HOME | Archives | Teacher Tools | Electronic Thread 
    Search | COOL Schools | Web Honor Roll | Participate | 
Editors 

Rubrics and Evaluation Resources

** NOTE: Download WinZip for PC or ZipIt for Mac to open any Zipped files below...and don't forget to register this shareware!

  • Rubric Templates: These templates are working spreadsheets with functions for total scores, etc. You may add new criteria and text to suit your needs.
    • Generic Rubric Template (Excel) Use this template to create your own rubric to match your curriculum. (Download time: 5 seconds)
    • Multimedia Project Rubric Template (Excel) Another working spreadsheet to be used in evaluating multimedia presentations.  Just put in the scores and they will be totaled for you.  The form also provides for self-evaluation, as well as teacher-evaluation.  You can easily change the text of any cell to suit your curriculum and your needs.

    (NOTE: Permission is granted for educators to copy and distribute these files as long no fee is charged and MidLink Magazine is cited as the source. WinZip and ZipIt are Shareware and users should register them.)

    Created: 10/11/97 Updated: 08/02/04

     

MidLink Magazine
Teacher Tools

Teacher Working

Critical Thinking Skills
   Teaching Resources  
  
Graphic Organizers
       Graphic.Org.Com
  
KWHL
Chart

Rubrics and Handouts
  Rubrics
  Rubric "How To's"
 
Web Page Evaluation

Web Publishing
  Copyright Guidelines
  Web Author Resources
 
Web Toolbox

Web Tips and Tricks
 
Bookmark Management
  Views Web Pages Off-Line

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MidLink HOME | Archives | Teacher Tools | Electronic Thread 
    Search | COOL Schools | Web Honor Roll | Participate | 
Editors 

Rubrics and Evaluation Resources

** NOTE: Download WinZip for PC or ZipIt for Mac to open any Zipped files below...and don't forget to register this shareware!

  • Rubric Templates: These templates are working spreadsheets with functions for total scores, etc. You may add new criteria and text to suit your needs.
    • Generic Rubric Template (Excel) Use this template to create your own rubric to match your curriculum. (Download time: 5 seconds)
    • Multimedia Project Rubric Template (Excel) Another working spreadsheet to be used in evaluating multimedia presentations.  Just put in the scores and they will be totaled for you.  The form also provides for self-evaluation, as well as teacher-evaluation.  You can easily change the text of any cell to suit your curriculum and your needs.

    (NOTE: Permission is granted for educators to copy and distribute these files as long no fee is charged and MidLink Magazine is cited as the source. WinZip and ZipIt are Shareware and users should register them.)

    Created: 10/11/97 Updated: 08/02/04

     

Understanding Rubrics by Heidi Goodrich Andrade

Understanding Rubrics by Heidi Goodrich Andrade

Understanding Rubrics

by Heidi Goodrich Andrade

Authentic assessments tend to use rubrics to describe student achievement. At last, here’s clarity on the term.

Every time I introduce rubrics to a group of teachers the reaction is the same — instant appeal (“Yes, this is what I need!”) followed closely by panic (“Good grief, how can I be expected to develop a rubric for everything?”). When you learn what rubrics do—and why—you can create and use them to support and assess student learning without losing your sanity.

What Is a Rubric?

A rubric is a scoring tool that lists the criteria for a piece of work, or “what counts” (for example, purpose, organization, details, voice, and mechanics are often what count in a piece of writing); it also articulates gradations of quality for each criterion, from excellent to poor. The term defies a dictionary definition, but it seems to have established itself, so I continue to use it.

The example in Figure 1 (adapted from Perkins et al 1994) lists the criteria and gradations of quality for verbal, written, or graphic reports on student inventions — for instance, inventions designed to ease the Westward journey for 19th century pioneers for instance, or to solve a local environmental problem, or to represent an imaginary culture and its inhabitants, or anything else students might invent.

This rubric lists the criteria in the column on the left: The report must explain (1) the purposes of the invention, (2) the features or parts of the invention and how they help it serve its purposes, (3) the pros and cons of the design, and (4) how the design connects to other things past, present, and future. The rubric could easily include criteria related to presentation style and effectiveness, the mechanics of written pieces, and the quality of the invention itself.

The four columns to the right of the criteria describe varying degrees of quality, from excellent to poor. As concisely as possible, these columns explain what makes a good piece of work good and a bad one bad.

 

Figure 1

Rubric for an Invention Report

Criteria

Quality

Purposes

The report explains the key purposes of the invention and points out less obvious ones as well.

The report explains all of the key purposes of the invention.

The report explains some of the purposes of the invention but misses key purposes.

The report does not refer to the purposes of the invention.

Features

The report details both key and hidden features of the invention and explains how they serve several purposes.

The report details the key features of the invention and explains the purposes they serve.

The report neglects some features of the invention or the purposes they serve.

The report does not detail the features of the invention or the purposes they serve.

Critique

The report discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the invention, and suggests ways in which it can be improved.

The report discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the invention.

The report discusses either the strengths or weaknesses of the invention but not both.

The report does not mention the strengths or the weaknesses of the invention.

Connections

The report makes appropriate connections between the purposes and features of the invention and many different kinds of phenomena.

The report makes appropriate connections between the purposes and features of the invention and one or two phenomena.

The report makes unclear or inappropriate connections between the invention and other phenomena.

The report makes no connections between the invention and other things.

 

Why Use Rubrics?

Rubrics appeal to teachers and students for many reasons. First, they are powerful tools for both teaching and assessment. Rubrics can improve student performance, as well as monitor it, by making teachers’ expectations clear and by showing students how to meet these expectations. The result is often marked improvements in the quality of student work and in learning. Thus, the most common argument for using rubrics is they help define “quality.” One student actually didn’t like rubrics for this very reason: “If you get something wrong,” she said, “your teacher can prove you knew what you were supposed to do!” (Marcus 1995).

A second reason that rubrics are useful is that they help students become more thoughtful judges of the quality of their own and others’ work. When rubrics are used to guide self- and peer-assessment, students become increasingly able to spot and solve problems in their own and one another’s work. Repeated practice with peer-assessment, and especially self-assessment, increases students’ sense of responsibility for their own work and cuts down on the number of “Am I done yet?” questions.

Third, rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work. Teachers tend to find that by the time a piece has been self- and peer-assessed according to a rubric, they have little left to say about it. When they do have something to say, they can often simply circle an item in the rubric, rather than struggling to explain the flaw or strength they have noticed and figuring out what to suggest in terms of improvements. Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement.

Fourth, teachers appreciate rubrics because their “accordion” nature allows them to accommodate heterogeneous classes. The examples here have three or four gradations of quality, but there is no reason they can’t be “stretched” to reflect the work of both gifted and those with learning disabilities.

Finally, rubrics are easy to use and to explain. Christine Hall, a fourth grade teacher, reflected on how both students and parents responded to her use of rubrics:

Students were able to articulate what they had learned, and by the end of the year could be accurate with their evaluations. Parents were very excited about the use of rubrics. During parent conferences I used sample rubrics to explain to parents their purpose, and how they were used in class. The reaction of parents was very encouraging. They knew exactly what their child needed to do to be successful.

How Do You Create Rubrics?

Rubrics are becoming increasingly popular with educators moving toward more authentic, performance-based assessments. Recent publications contain some rubrics (Brewer 1996; Marzano et al 1993). Chances are, however, that you will have to develop a few to reflect your own curriculum and teaching style. To boost the learning leverage of rubrics, the rubric design process should engage students in the following steps:

1. Look at models: Show students examples of good and not-so-good work. Identify the characteristics that make the good ones good and the bad ones bad.

2. List criteria: Use the discussion of models to begin a list of what counts in quality work.

3. Articulate gradations of quality: Describe the best and worst levels of quality, then fill in the middle levels based on your knowledge of common problems and the discussion of not-so-good work.

4. Practice on models: Have students use the rubrics to evaluate the models you gave them in Step 1.

5. Use self- and peer-assessment: Give students their task. As they work, stop them occasionally for self- and peer-assessment.

6. Revise: Always give students time to revise their work based on the feedback they get in Step 5.

7. Use teacher assessment: Use the same rubric students used to assess their work yourself.

Step 1 may be necessary only when you are asking students to engage in a task with which they are unfamiliar. Steps 3 and 4 are useful but time-consuming; you can do these on your own, especially when you’ve been using rubrics for a while. A class experienced in rubric-based assessment can streamline the process so that it begins with listing criteria, after which the teacher writes out the gradations of quality, checks them with the students, makes revisions, then uses the rubric for self-, peer-, and teacher assessment.

Ann Tanona, a second grade teacher, went through the seven-step process with her students. The result was a rubric for assessing videotaped Reading Rainbow-style “book talks” (fig. 2).

 

Figure 2

Book Talk Rubric

Criteria

Quality

Did I get my audience’s attention?

Creative beginning

Boring beginning

No beginning

Did I tell what kind of book?

Tells exactly what type of book it is

Not sure, not clear

Didn’t mention it

Did I tell something about the main character?

Included facts about character

Slid over character

Did not tell anything about main character

Did I mention the setting?

Tells when and where story takes place

Not sure, not clear

Didn’t mention setting

Did I tell one interesting part?

Made it sound interesting — I want to buy it!

Told part and skipped on to something else

Forgot to do it

Did I tell who might like this book?

Did tell

Skipped over it

Forgot to tell

How did I look?

Hair combed, neat, clean clothes, smiled, looked up, happy

Lazy look

Just-got-out-of-bed look, head down

How did I sound?

Clear, strong, cheerful voice

No expression in voice

Difficult to understand— 6-inch voice or screeching

 

Tips on Designing Rubrics

Ann’s rubric is powerful because it articulates the characteristics of a good “book talk” in students’ own words. It also demonstrates some of the difficulties of designing a good rubric.

Perhaps the most common challenge is avoiding unclear language, such as “creative beginning.” If a rubric is to teach as well as evaluate, terms like these must be defined for students. Admittedly, creative is a difficult word to define. Ann handled this problem by having a discussion of what the term “creative beginning” meant in the book talks. Patricia Crosby and Pamela Heinz, both seventh grade teachers, solved the same problem in a rubric for oral presentations by actually listing ways in which students could meet the criterion (fig. 3). This approach provides valuable information to students on how to begin a talk and avoids the need to define elusive terms like creative.

Figure 3

Rubric for an Oral Presentation

Criterion

Quality

Gains attention of audience.

Gives details or an amusing fact, a series of questions, a short demonstration, a colorful visual or a personal reason why they picked this topic.

Does a two-sentence introduction, then starts speech.

Gives a one-sentence introduction, then starts speech.

Does not attempt to gain attention of audience, just starts speech.

A second challenge in rubric design is avoiding unnecessarily negative language. The excerpt from the rubric in Figure 3 avoids words like boring by describing what was done during a so-so beginning to a talk and implicitly comparing it with the highest level of quality. Thus, students know exactly what they did wrong and how they can do better next time, not just that the opening to their talk was boring.

Articulating gradations of quality is often a challenge. It helps if you spend a lot of time thinking about criteria and how best to chunk them before going on to define the levels of quality. You might also try a clever technique I have borrowed from a fifth grade teacher in Gloucester, Massachusetts. She describes gradations of quality as: "Yes," "Yes but," "No but," and "No." For example, Figure 4 shows part of a rubric for evaluating a scrapbook that documents a story. This approach tends to work well, as long as you aren’t too rigid about it. Rigidity can have amusing results: One student wrote out the lowest level of quality for the criterion, "Is it anachronism free?" this way: "No, I did not remember to not use anachronism"!

Figure 4

Rubric for Evaluating a Scrapbook

Criterion

Quality

Gives enough details.

Yes, I put in enough details to give the reader a sense of time, place, and events.

Yes, I put in some details, but some key details are missing.

No, I didn’t put in enough details, but I did include a few.

No, I had almost no details.

 

What to Do Once You’ve Created Rubrics

Creating rubrics is the hard part — using them is relatively easy. Once you’ve created a rubric, give copies to students and ask them to assess their own progress on a task or project. Their assessments should not count toward a grade. The point is for the rubric to help students learn more and produce better final products, so including self-assessments in grades is unnecessary and can compromise students’ honesty.

Always give students time to revise their work after assessing themselves, then have them assess one another’s work. Peer-assessment takes some getting used to. Emphasize the fact that peer-assessment, like self-assessment, is intended to help everyone do better work. You may also need to hold students accountable for their assessments of a classmate’s work by having them sign off on the rubric they use. You can then see how fair and accurate their feedback is, and you can ask for evidence that supports their opinions when their assessments don’t match yours. Again, giving time for revision after peer-assessment is crucial.

Parents can use rubrics to help their children with their homework. Finally, when you assess student work, use the same rubric that was used for self- and peer-assessment. When you hand the marked rubric back with the students’ work, they’ll know what they did well and what they need to work on in the future.

Grading (if you must) is also relatively easy with rubrics. A piece of work that reflects the highest level of quality for each criterion obviously deserves an A, one that consistently falls in the lowest level is a D or F, and so on. Because one piece of work rarely falls in only one level of quality, many teachers average out the levels of quality, either formally or informally.

Rubrics can also be included in portfolios. However you use them, the idea is to support and to evaluate student learning. Students, as well as teachers, should respond to the use of rubrics by thinking, “Yes, this is what I need!”

References

Brewer, R. (1996). Exemplars: A Teacher’s Solution. Underhill, VT: Exemplars.

Marcus, J. (1995). “Data on the Impact of Alternative Assessment on Students.” Unpublished manuscript. The Education Cooperative, Wellesley, MA.

Marzano, R., D. Pickering, and J. McTighe (1993). Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Perkins, D., H. Goodrich, S. Tishman, and J. Mirman Owen (1994). Thinking Connections: Learning to Think and Thinking to Learn. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Understanding Rubrics by Heidi Goodrich Andrade

Understanding Rubrics

by Heidi Goodrich Andrade

Authentic assessments tend to use rubrics to describe student achievement. At last, here’s clarity on the term.

Every time I introduce rubrics to a group of teachers the reaction is the same — instant appeal (“Yes, this is what I need!”) followed closely by panic (“Good grief, how can I be expected to develop a rubric for everything?”). When you learn what rubrics do—and why—you can create and use them to support and assess student learning without losing your sanity.

What Is a Rubric?

A rubric is a scoring tool that lists the criteria for a piece of work, or “what counts” (for example, purpose, organization, details, voice, and mechanics are often what count in a piece of writing); it also articulates gradations of quality for each criterion, from excellent to poor. The term defies a dictionary definition, but it seems to have established itself, so I continue to use it.

The example in Figure 1 (adapted from Perkins et al 1994) lists the criteria and gradations of quality for verbal, written, or graphic reports on student inventions — for instance, inventions designed to ease the Westward journey for 19th century pioneers for instance, or to solve a local environmental problem, or to represent an imaginary culture and its inhabitants, or anything else students might invent.

This rubric lists the criteria in the column on the left: The report must explain (1) the purposes of the invention, (2) the features or parts of the invention and how they help it serve its purposes, (3) the pros and cons of the design, and (4) how the design connects to other things past, present, and future. The rubric could easily include criteria related to presentation style and effectiveness, the mechanics of written pieces, and the quality of the invention itself.

The four columns to the right of the criteria describe varying degrees of quality, from excellent to poor. As concisely as possible, these columns explain what makes a good piece of work good and a bad one bad.

 

Figure 1

Rubric for an Invention Report

Criteria

Quality

Purposes

The report explains the key purposes of the invention and points out less obvious ones as well.

The report explains all of the key purposes of the invention.

The report explains some of the purposes of the invention but misses key purposes.

The report does not refer to the purposes of the invention.

Features

The report details both key and hidden features of the invention and explains how they serve several purposes.

The report details the key features of the invention and explains the purposes they serve.

The report neglects some features of the invention or the purposes they serve.

The report does not detail the features of the invention or the purposes they serve.

Critique

The report discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the invention, and suggests ways in which it can be improved.

The report discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the invention.

The report discusses either the strengths or weaknesses of the invention but not both.

The report does not mention the strengths or the weaknesses of the invention.

Connections

The report makes appropriate connections between the purposes and features of the invention and many different kinds of phenomena.

The report makes appropriate connections between the purposes and features of the invention and one or two phenomena.

The report makes unclear or inappropriate connections between the invention and other phenomena.

The report makes no connections between the invention and other things.

 

Why Use Rubrics?

Rubrics appeal to teachers and students for many reasons. First, they are powerful tools for both teaching and assessment. Rubrics can improve student performance, as well as monitor it, by making teachers’ expectations clear and by showing students how to meet these expectations. The result is often marked improvements in the quality of student work and in learning. Thus, the most common argument for using rubrics is they help define “quality.” One student actually didn’t like rubrics for this very reason: “If you get something wrong,” she said, “your teacher can prove you knew what you were supposed to do!” (Marcus 1995).

A second reason that rubrics are useful is that they help students become more thoughtful judges of the quality of their own and others’ work. When rubrics are used to guide self- and peer-assessment, students become increasingly able to spot and solve problems in their own and one another’s work. Repeated practice with peer-assessment, and especially self-assessment, increases students’ sense of responsibility for their own work and cuts down on the number of “Am I done yet?” questions.

Third, rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work. Teachers tend to find that by the time a piece has been self- and peer-assessed according to a rubric, they have little left to say about it. When they do have something to say, they can often simply circle an item in the rubric, rather than struggling to explain the flaw or strength they have noticed and figuring out what to suggest in terms of improvements. Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement.

Fourth, teachers appreciate rubrics because their “accordion” nature allows them to accommodate heterogeneous classes. The examples here have three or four gradations of quality, but there is no reason they can’t be “stretched” to reflect the work of both gifted and those with learning disabilities.

Finally, rubrics are easy to use and to explain. Christine Hall, a fourth grade teacher, reflected on how both students and parents responded to her use of rubrics:

Students were able to articulate what they had learned, and by the end of the year could be accurate with their evaluations. Parents were very excited about the use of rubrics. During parent conferences I used sample rubrics to explain to parents their purpose, and how they were used in class. The reaction of parents was very encouraging. They knew exactly what their child needed to do to be successful.

How Do You Create Rubrics?

Rubrics are becoming increasingly popular with educators moving toward more authentic, performance-based assessments. Recent publications contain some rubrics (Brewer 1996; Marzano et al 1993). Chances are, however, that you will have to develop a few to reflect your own curriculum and teaching style. To boost the learning leverage of rubrics, the rubric design process should engage students in the following steps:

1. Look at models: Show students examples of good and not-so-good work. Identify the characteristics that make the good ones good and the bad ones bad.

2. List criteria: Use the discussion of models to begin a list of what counts in quality work.

3. Articulate gradations of quality: Describe the best and worst levels of quality, then fill in the middle levels based on your knowledge of common problems and the discussion of not-so-good work.

4. Practice on models: Have students use the rubrics to evaluate the models you gave them in Step 1.

5. Use self- and peer-assessment: Give students their task. As they work, stop them occasionally for self- and peer-assessment.

6. Revise: Always give students time to revise their work based on the feedback they get in Step 5.

7. Use teacher assessment: Use the same rubric students used to assess their work yourself.

Step 1 may be necessary only when you are asking students to engage in a task with which they are unfamiliar. Steps 3 and 4 are useful but time-consuming; you can do these on your own, especially when you’ve been using rubrics for a while. A class experienced in rubric-based assessment can streamline the process so that it begins with listing criteria, after which the teacher writes out the gradations of quality, checks them with the students, makes revisions, then uses the rubric for self-, peer-, and teacher assessment.

Ann Tanona, a second grade teacher, went through the seven-step process with her students. The result was a rubric for assessing videotaped Reading Rainbow-style “book talks” (fig. 2).

 

Figure 2

Book Talk Rubric

Criteria

Quality

Did I get my audience’s attention?

Creative beginning

Boring beginning

No beginning

Did I tell what kind of book?

Tells exactly what type of book it is

Not sure, not clear

Didn’t mention it

Did I tell something about the main character?

Included facts about character

Slid over character

Did not tell anything about main character

Did I mention the setting?

Tells when and where story takes place

Not sure, not clear

Didn’t mention setting

Did I tell one interesting part?

Made it sound interesting — I want to buy it!

Told part and skipped on to something else

Forgot to do it

Did I tell who might like this book?

Did tell

Skipped over it

Forgot to tell

How did I look?

Hair combed, neat, clean clothes, smiled, looked up, happy

Lazy look

Just-got-out-of-bed look, head down

How did I sound?

Clear, strong, cheerful voice

No expression in voice

Difficult to understand— 6-inch voice or screeching

 

Tips on Designing Rubrics

Ann’s rubric is powerful because it articulates the characteristics of a good “book talk” in students’ own words. It also demonstrates some of the difficulties of designing a good rubric.

Perhaps the most common challenge is avoiding unclear language, such as “creative beginning.” If a rubric is to teach as well as evaluate, terms like these must be defined for students. Admittedly, creative is a difficult word to define. Ann handled this problem by having a discussion of what the term “creative beginning” meant in the book talks. Patricia Crosby and Pamela Heinz, both seventh grade teachers, solved the same problem in a rubric for oral presentations by actually listing ways in which students could meet the criterion (fig. 3). This approach provides valuable information to students on how to begin a talk and avoids the need to define elusive terms like creative.

Figure 3

Rubric for an Oral Presentation

Criterion

Quality

Gains attention of audience.

Gives details or an amusing fact, a series of questions, a short demonstration, a colorful visual or a personal reason why they picked this topic.

Does a two-sentence introduction, then starts speech.

Gives a one-sentence introduction, then starts speech.

Does not attempt to gain attention of audience, just starts speech.

A second challenge in rubric design is avoiding unnecessarily negative language. The excerpt from the rubric in Figure 3 avoids words like boring by describing what was done during a so-so beginning to a talk and implicitly comparing it with the highest level of quality. Thus, students know exactly what they did wrong and how they can do better next time, not just that the opening to their talk was boring.

Articulating gradations of quality is often a challenge. It helps if you spend a lot of time thinking about criteria and how best to chunk them before going on to define the levels of quality. You might also try a clever technique I have borrowed from a fifth grade teacher in Gloucester, Massachusetts. She describes gradations of quality as: "Yes," "Yes but," "No but," and "No." For example, Figure 4 shows part of a rubric for evaluating a scrapbook that documents a story. This approach tends to work well, as long as you aren’t too rigid about it. Rigidity can have amusing results: One student wrote out the lowest level of quality for the criterion, "Is it anachronism free?" this way: "No, I did not remember to not use anachronism"!

Figure 4

Rubric for Evaluating a Scrapbook

Criterion

Quality

Gives enough details.

Yes, I put in enough details to give the reader a sense of time, place, and events.

Yes, I put in some details, but some key details are missing.

No, I didn’t put in enough details, but I did include a few.

No, I had almost no details.

 

What to Do Once You’ve Created Rubrics

Creating rubrics is the hard part — using them is relatively easy. Once you’ve created a rubric, give copies to students and ask them to assess their own progress on a task or project. Their assessments should not count toward a grade. The point is for the rubric to help students learn more and produce better final products, so including self-assessments in grades is unnecessary and can compromise students’ honesty.

Always give students time to revise their work after assessing themselves, then have them assess one another’s work. Peer-assessment takes some getting used to. Emphasize the fact that peer-assessment, like self-assessment, is intended to help everyone do better work. You may also need to hold students accountable for their assessments of a classmate’s work by having them sign off on the rubric they use. You can then see how fair and accurate their feedback is, and you can ask for evidence that supports their opinions when their assessments don’t match yours. Again, giving time for revision after peer-assessment is crucial.

Parents can use rubrics to help their children with their homework. Finally, when you assess student work, use the same rubric that was used for self- and peer-assessment. When you hand the marked rubric back with the students’ work, they’ll know what they did well and what they need to work on in the future.

Grading (if you must) is also relatively easy with rubrics. A piece of work that reflects the highest level of quality for each criterion obviously deserves an A, one that consistently falls in the lowest level is a D or F, and so on. Because one piece of work rarely falls in only one level of quality, many teachers average out the levels of quality, either formally or informally.

Rubrics can also be included in portfolios. However you use them, the idea is to support and to evaluate student learning. Students, as well as teachers, should respond to the use of rubrics by thinking, “Yes, this is what I need!”

References

Brewer, R. (1996). Exemplars: A Teacher’s Solution. Underhill, VT: Exemplars.

Marcus, J. (1995). “Data on the Impact of Alternative Assessment on Students.” Unpublished manuscript. The Education Cooperative, Wellesley, MA.

Marzano, R., D. Pickering, and J. McTighe (1993). Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Perkins, D., H. Goodrich, S. Tishman, and J. Mirman Owen (1994). Thinking Connections: Learning to Think and Thinking to Learn. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.